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Recommended books and articles on gender and sexuality...


David Ayalon. Eunuchs, Caliphs, and Sultans: A Study in Power Relationships. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1999.

Bernadette J. Brooten. Love Between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism. Chicago: Univerity of Chicago Press, 1996.

Peter Brown. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York, 1988.

Vern Bulloughs. Sexual Variance in Society and History. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976.

Eva Cantarella. Bisexuality in the Ancient World. Tr. Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992. [Italian version 1988]

David Cohen. "Sexuality, Violence, and the Athenian Law of Hubris." In: Greece & Rome Vol. 38 (October 1991) No. 2, pp. 171-188.

Danilo Dalla. "Ubi Venus Mutatur": Omosessualità e Diritto nel Mondo Romano ["Where Love is Mutated": Homosexuality and Law in the Roman World]. Milan: A Giuffrè, 1987.

Stephanie Dalley, tr. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Marc Daniel. "Arab Civilization and Male Love," in: Gay Sunshine, No. 32 (Spring 1977).

Kenneth J. Dover. Greek Homosexuality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. [First published 1978.]

Elaine Fantham. "Stuprum: Public Attitudes and Penalties for Sexual Offences in Republican Rome," in: Echos du Monde Classique/Classical Views, Vol. 35 (1991) No. 10, pp. 267-291.

Michel Foucault. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1: An Introduction. Tr. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage Books, 1978. [French version 1976]
Michel Foucault. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 2: The Use of Pleasure. Tr. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage Books, 1985. [French version 1984]
Michel Foucault. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 3: The Care of the Self. Tr. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage Books, 1986. [French version 1984]

David F. Greenberg. The Construction of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Gunnora Hallakarva. "The Vikings and Homosexuality." Web-published at People With a History.

Judith P. Hallett. "Female Homoeroticism and the Denial of Roman Reality in Latin Literature," in: Yale Journal of Criticism, Vol. 3, No. 1 (1989) 209-227.

David Halperin, John J. Winkler, Froma Zeitlin, eds. Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

David Halperin. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Gilbert Herdt, ed. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 1996. Note especially Chapter 1 on Byzantine eunuchs, see Kathryn Ringrose below.

Magnus Hirschfeld. Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes [Homosexuality in Man and Woman]. Berlin, 1914. [Reprinted 1984. Also recently translated.]

Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. "Incest, Sodomy, and Bestiality in the Ancient Near East," in: Harry A. Hoffner, Jr., ed. Orient and Occident: Essays Presented to Cyrus H. Gordon on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday. Altes Orient und Altes Testament, Vol. 22. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973, pp. 81-90.

Keith Hopkins. Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History, Volume 1. Chapter 4: "The Political Power of Eunuchs." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Thomas Laqueur. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Shaun Marmon. Eunuchs and Sacred Boundaries in Islamic Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Nabil Matar. Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery. Ch. 4 "Sodomy and conquest." New York: Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 109-127.

A. Cheikh Moussa. "Gâhiz et les Eunuques, ou la Confusion du Même et de l'Autre" ["Jahiz and the Eunuchs, or the Confusion of Sameness and Difference"], in: Arabica Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 184-214.

Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, et al. Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Arthur Darby Nock. "Eunuchs in Ancient Religion," in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft Vol. 23, pp. 25-33.

Rictor Norton. The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity. London: Cassell, 1997.

Cengiz Orhonlu. "Khasi" ["Eunuch"], in: The Encyclopedia of Islam. H.A.R Gibb et al., eds. Vol. 4. Leiden, 1960, pp. 1087-1093.

Harald Patzer. Die Griechische Knabenliebe [Greek Pederasty]. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982. In: Sitzungsberichte der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Vol. 19 No.1.

Amy Richlin. "Not Before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the Cinaedus and the Roman Law Against Love Between Men," in: Journal of the History of Sexuality Vol. 3 (1993) pp. 523-573.

Amy Richlin. The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor. Revised edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. [Originally published 1983]

Kathryn Ringrose. "Living in the Shadows: Eunuchs and Gender in Byzantium," in: Gilbert Herdt, ed. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. New York: Zone Books, 1996, pp. 85-109.

Will Roscoe. "Priests of the Goddess: Gender Transgression in Ancient Religion," in: History of Religions, vol. 35, No. 3 (February 1996), pp. 195-230.

Franz Rosenthal. "Ar-Râzi on the Hidden Illness," in: Bulletin of the History of Medicine Vol. 52 (1978) pp. 45-60.

Everett Rowson. "Categorization of gender and sexual irregularity in medieval Arabic vice lists," in: Julia Epstein and Kristina Straub, eds. Body Guards: the cultural politics of gender ambiguity. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Preben Meulengracht Sørensen. The Unmanly Man: Concepts of Sexual Defamation in Early Northern Society. Tr. Joan Turville-Petre. Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press, 1983.

Walter Stevenson. "The Rise of Eunuchs in Greco-Roman Antiquity," in: Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 5, No. 4 (1995), pp. 495-511.

Shaun Tougher. "Byzantine Eunuchs: An Overview, with Special Reference to their Creation and Origin," in: Liz James, ed. Women, Men, and Eunuchs: Gender in Byzantium. London: Routledge, (1998 or 1999?), pp. 168-184.

Thorkil Vanggaard. Phallós: A Symbol and its History in the Male World. New York: International Universities Press, 1972. [Danish version 1969]

Craig A. Williams. Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

J.W. Wright and Everett K. Rowson, eds. Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature. New York: Columbia University Press

Turn of the Twentieth Century

See the section of the Born Eunuchs Library on "The Homosexuality Debate" (1886-1910) for translations of representative texts from this period.


Elisabeth Badinter. XY: On Masculine Identity. Tr. Lydia Davis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. [French version 1992]

Randy P. Conner. Blossom of Bone: Reclaiming the Connections Between Homoeroticism and the Sacred. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

Christian de la Huerta. Coming Out Spiritually: the next step. New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 1999.

Zia Jaffrey. The Invisibles: A Tale of the Eunuchs of India. New York: Pantheon Books, 1996.

Fatima Mernissi. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society. Bloomington, ID: Indiana University Press (especially pp. 99-100)

Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, eds. Boy-Wives and Female Husbands: African Homosexualities. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

David Plummer. One of the Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1999.

Fatnah Sabbah. Woman in the Muslim Unconscious. New York: Pergamon, 1984.

Arno Schmitt & Jehoeda Sofer, eds. Sexuality & Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies. New York: Haworth Press, 1992.

Edward J. Tejirian. Male to Male: Sexual Feeling Across the Boundaries of Identity. New York: Harrington Park Press, 2000.

Male Rape: The Real Crime of Sodomy

Helen Benedict. Recovery: How to Survive Sexual Assault for Women, Men, Teenagers, Their Friends and Families. Ch. 6: "Men Get Raped, Too." New York: Columbia University Press.

Paul Cowan. "Pilgrim's Progress," in: Village Voice, March 5, 1985, p. 20.

A. Nicholas Groth and Ann Wolbert Burgess. "Male Rape: Offenders and Victims," in: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 137 (July 1980) No. 7, pp. 806-810.

Arthur Kaufman, et al. "Male Rape Victims: Noninstitutionalized Assault," in: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 137 (February 1980) No. 2, pp. 221-223.

Michael Scarce. Male on Male Rape: The Hidden Toll of Stigma and Shame. New York: Insight Books, 1997.