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The Virtual Community: Bibliography

By Howard Rheingold

Allison, Jay. "Vigil." Whole Earth Review 75 (Summer 1992):4.

Amara, Roy, John Smith, Murray Turoff, and Jacques Vallee. "Computerized Conferencing, a New Medium." Mosaic (National Science Foundation) (January-February 1976).

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.

Bagdikian, Ben. "The Lords of the Global Village." The Nation (12 June 1989): 805.

------. The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press, 1983.

Baran, Paul. "On Distributed Communications." In Rand Memoranda, vols. 1-11. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, August 1964.

------. "On Distributed Communications Networks." IEEE Transactions on Communications Systems CS-12 (1964): 1-9.

Barlow, John Perry. "Crime and Puzzlement." Whole Earth Review 68 (Fall 1990): 44.

Bartle, Richard. "Interactive Multi-User Computer Games." Internal study for British Telecom, Colchester, England, 1990.

Baudrillard, Jean. Selected Writings. Edited by Mark Poster. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1988.

Bellah, Robert N., R. Madsen, W. Sullivan, A. Swindler, and S. Tipton. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1985.

------. The Good Society. New York: Knopf, 1991.

Bentham, Jeremy. Works, vol. 4. Edited by J. Bowring. Edinburgh: William Tait, 1843.

Brand, Stewart. II Cybernetic Frontiers. New York: Random House, 1974.

------. The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT. New York: Penguin, 1987.

Bruckman, Amy. "Identity Workshops: Emergent Social and Psychological Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Reality." Master's thesis, MIT Media Laboratory, 1992.

Bruckman, Amy, and Mitchel Resnick. "Virtual Professional Community: Results from the MediaMOO Project." Paper submitted to the Third International Conference on Cyberspace. Austin, Texas, March 1993.

Bruhat, Thierry. "Messageries Electroniques: Grétel ů Strasbourg et Télétel a Vélizy." In Télématique: Promenades ans les Usages. Edited by Marie Marchand and Clair Ancelin. Paris: La Documentation Francaise, 1984.

Carey, James. "The Mythos of the Electronic Revolution." In Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society. Winchester, Mass.: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Carpignano, Paolo, Robin Anderson, Stanley Aronowitz, and William Difazio. "Chatter in the Age of Electronic Reproduction: Talk Television and the Public Mind." Social Text 25, no. 6 (1990).

Christensen, Ward, and Randy Seuss. "Hobbyist Computerized Bulletin Boards." Byte (November 1978): 150.

Christensen, Ward. "History: Me, Micros, Randy, Xmodem, CBBS." Posting on Chinet conferencing system, 18 March 1989.

Clapp, T. J. Burnside. "Weekend-Only World." Fesarius Publications, 1987.

Coate, John. "Innkeeping in Cyberspace." Paper read at the Directions in Advanced Computing Conference. Berkeley, Calif., 1991.

Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment. Critical Connections: Communication for the Future. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1990.

Curtis, Pavel. Panel on MUDs at the Directions in Advanced Computing Conference. Berkeley, Calif., 1991.

Curtis, Pavel, and David A. Nichols. MUDs Grow Up: Social Virtual Reality in the Real World. Palo Alto, Calif.: Xerox PARC, 1993.

Debord, Guy. Comments on the Society of the Spectacle. London: Verso, 1992.

Elshtain, Jean Betheke. "Interactive TV--Democracy and the QUBE Tube." The Nation (7-14 August 1982): 108.

Engelbart, Douglas C. "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." In Vistas in Information Handling, vol. 1. Edited by Paul William Howerton and David C. Weeks. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1963, pp. 1-29.

------. "Intellectual Implications of Multi-Access Computing." Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Multi-Access Computer Networks, April 1970.

------. "NLS Teleconferencing Features: The Journal and Shared-Screen Telephoning." IEEE Digest of Papers (CompCon) (Fall 1975): 175-76.

Evenson, Laura. "Future TV Will Shop for You and Talk for You." The San Francisco Chronicle, 8 June 1993.

Feenberg, Andrew. "From Information to Communication: The French Experience with Videotext." In The Social Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication. Edited by Marin Lea. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Simon & Schuster/Harvester-Wheatsheaf, 1992.

Forster, E. M. "The Machine Stops." In The Eternal Moment and Other Stories. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1929.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated from the French by Alan Sheridan. New York: Pantheon, 1977.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973, p. 44.

Gergin, Kenneth J. The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New York: Ace, 1984.

Goffman, Erving. The Presentation of Self in Every Day Life. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959.

Habermas, Jürgen. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 1, Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Translated by Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984.

------. Extensive discussion of the public sphere was published in Strukturwandel der \UOffentlichkeit (Neuwied, 1962). A discussion of this book, translated into English, appeared in New German Critique no. 3 (Fall 1974): 45-55.

Hart, Jeffrey, R. Reed, F. Bar. "The Building of the Internet: Implications for the Future of Broadband Networks." Telecommunications Policy (November 1992): 666-89.

Hauben, Michael. "The Social Forces Behind the Development of Usenet News." Unpublished paper, Columbia University, 1992.

Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, and Murray Turoff. The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1978, p. 102.

Hiramatsu, Morihiko. "Towards a More Autonomous Region through Informatization and Revitalization." Speech given at the Apple Hakone Multimedia and Arts Festival, Hakone, Japan, 1 August 1992.

Jenkins, Henry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York and London: Routledge, 1992.

Kiesler, Sara. "The Hidden Messages in Computer Networks." Harvard Business Review (January-February 1986).

Kiesler, Sara, Jane Siegel, and Timothy McGuire. "Social Psychological Aspects of Computer-Mediated Communication." American Psychologist 39, no. 10 (October 1984): 1123-34.

Kumon, Shumpei. "Japan as a Network Society." In The Political Economy of Japan. Vol. 3, The Social and Cultural Dynamics. Edited by Shumpei Kumon and Henry Rosovsky. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1992, pp. 109-41.

Kumon, Shumpei, and Izumi Aizu. "Co-emulation: The Case for a Global Hypernetwork Society." In Global Networks: Computers and International Communication. Edited by Linda Harasim. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.

Krol, Ed. The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog. Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly & Assoc., 1992.

LaQuey, Tracy. The Internet Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1992.

Laurel, Brenda. Computers as Theater. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1991.

Licklider, J. C. R. "Man-Computer Symbiosis." IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (March 1960): 4-11.

Licklider, J. C. R., Robert Taylor, and E. Herbert. "The Computer as a Communication Device." International Science and Technology (April 1968).

Lipnack, Jessica, and Jeffrey Stamps. Networking: The First Report and Directory. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.

Marchand, Marie. A French Success Story: The Minitel Saga. Translated by Mark Murphy. Paris: Larousse, 1988.

Markoff, John. "U.S. Said to Play Favorites in Promoting Nationwide Computer Network." The New York Times (18 December 1991).

------. "Microsoft and Two Cable Giants Close to an Alliance." The New York Times (13 June 1993).

Marx, Gary T. "Privacy and Technology." The World and I (September 1990).

Morningstar, Chip, and F. Randall Farmer. "The Lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat." In Cyberspace: First Steps. Edited by Michael Benedikt. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.

Nora, Simon, and Alain Minc. L'informatisation de la société. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1978.

Odasz, Frank. "Big Sky Telegraph." Whole Earth Review 71 (Summer 1991): 32.

Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You through the Day. New York: Paragon House, 1991.

Olson, Mancur. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Peck, M. Scott. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York: Touchstone, 1987.

Postman, Neal. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York: Viking Penguin, 1985.

Quarterman, John. The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide. Bedford, Mass.: Digital Press, 1990.

------. "How Big Is the Matrix?" Matrix News 2, no. 2. Matrix Information and Directory Services, Austin, Texas, 1992.

------. "The Global Matrix of Minds." In Global Networks: Computers and International Communication. Edited by Linda Harasim. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.

Quittner, Joshua. "Internet Faces Gridlock." Newsday (1 November 1992).

Rapaport, Mathew J. Computer-Mediated Communications. New York: Wiley, 1991.

Reich, Robert. The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-Century Capitalism. New York: Random House, 1991.

Reid, Elisabeth. "Electropolis: Communications and Community on Internet Relay Chat." Electronically distributed version of honors thesis for the Department of History, University of Melbourne, 1991.

Rheingold, Howard. Tools for Thought. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985.

------. Virtual Reality. New York: Summit, 1991.

------. "Electronic Democracy." Whole Earth Review 71(Summer 1991): 4.

Rhodes, Sarah N. The Role of the National Science Foundation in the Development of the Electronic Journal. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, Division of Information Science and Technology, 1976.

Robins, Kevin, and Frank Webster. "Cybernetic Capitalism: Information, Technology, Everyday Life." In The Political Economy of Information. Edited by V. Mosco and J. Wasko. Madison, Wisc.: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

------. "Athens without Slaves . . . or Slaves without Athens? The Neurosis of Technology." In Science as Culture, vol. 1. London: Free Association Books, 1987.

Sculley, John, with John A. Byrne. Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple--A Journey of Adventure, Ideas, and the Future. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Smith, Marc. "Voices from the WELL: The Logic of the Virtual Commons." Master's thesis, Department of Sociology, UCLA, 1992.

Sproull, Lee, and Sara Kiesler. Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked World. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.

Sterling, Bruce. Hacker Crackdown. New York: Bantam, 1992.

Stone, Allucquere Roseanne. "Will the Real Body Please Stand Up? Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures." In Cyberspace: First Steps. Edited by Michael Benedikt. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.

Tribe, Laurence H. "The Constitution in Cyberspace." The Humanist (September-October 1991).

Turkle, Sherry. The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Turoff, Murray, and Starr Roxanne Hiltz. "Meeting through Your Computer." IEEE Spectrum (May 1977): 58-64.

Uncapher, Willard. "Rural Grassroots Telecommunication: Big Sky Telegraph and Its Community." Master's thesis, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, 1991.

------. "Trouble in Cyberspace." The Humanist (September-October 1991).

Vallee, Jacques. The Network Revolution: Confessions of a Computer Scientist. Berkeley, Calif.: And/Or Press, 1982.

Van Gelder, Lindsy. "The Strange Case of the Electronic Lover." Reprinted in Computerization and Controversy. Edited by Charles Dunlop and Robert Kling. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1991.

Varley, Pamela. "What's Really Happening in Santa Monica." Technology Review (November/December 1991).

Winner, Langdon. The Whale and the Reactor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986, p. 112.

Wittig, Michelle. "Electronic City Hall." Whole Earth Review 71 (Summer 1991): 24.

Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.

Yoshida, Atsuya, and Jun Kakuta. "People Who Live in an On-Line Virtual World." Department of Information Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606, Japan, 1993.


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