Map of Paliki (now) & surroundings: Homer said hisIthaca was "to
the west, the furthest out to sea", and "low-lying"... (click the image to enlarge)
* Resource List (selected, and partially annotated)
From a very extensive, and very old, literature... just a few of the latest journal articles & announcements, most interesting & exciting books, a very good video series, many other useful things, for "getting into" the subjects of Odysseus Studies and Ithaca... Because the world has "gone multimedia", now, various media which appear here are mixed together, and arranged simply by date, with the latest shown first: books, but also journal articles & videos & blogs & econferences & podcasts & TV broadcasts & ejournals & Webcasts & video conferences & CDROMS, plus realtime events both "face-to-faceless" and "face-to-face"1... nowadays it's all "information"2...
In order by date, most recent first: plus periodicals, listed at the end...
(See also the works of previous theorists of the location of "Ithaca", listed at Homer's Ithaca.)
(Article, Scientific American, June 24, 2008) "Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?"
"Researchers say that references to planets and constellations in the Odyssey describe a solar eclipse that occurred in 1178 B.C., nearly three centuries before Homer is believed to have written the story. If correct, the finding would suggest that the ancient poet had a surprisingly detailed knowledge of astronomy..."
(Announcement, June 18, 2008) "Successful first year's Fugro sponsorship of the Odysseus Unbound project"
Latest technology is used to investigate Europe's earliest enigma
Land, sea and airborne methods accurately image sub-surface beneath key valley
Geological update to appear in September 2008 issue of Geoscientist magazine
Public lecture to be held at the Geological Society, London on October 2 2008
(London and The Hague, June 18 2008.) "The results of the first year of sponsorship by Fugro of the Odysseus Unbound project are to be released in September 2008 and will be described in the September issue of Geoscientist, the monthly journal of the Geological Society of London. A carefully designed combination of land, sea and airborne techniques has provided a wealth of new data about 'Strabo's Channel', the isthmus described 2,000 years ago by the great geographer as being 'so low-lying that it is often submerged from sea to sea'.
(Announcement, March 11-15, 2008) "Kefalonia and Athens visit triggers major interest in Greek edition of Odysseus Unbound "
"From March 11-15 James Diggle and Robert Bittlestone presented the Greek translation of Odysseus Unbound to audiences in Kefalonia and Athens, alongside film footage of the current geological research. The events were arranged and coordinated by the publisher Petros Stathatos, Chief Executive of Ekdoseis Polytropon. Newspapers and TV and radio stations in Athens and on the island provided Press coverage and interviews with the authors. Lively audiences at each event debated this historic proposal prior to a reception and book-signing."
(Announcement, January 4, 2008) "Publication of the Greek edition of Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca "
"Homer described Ithaca as 'furthest west' but where is Odysseus' island now?
Latest scientific techniques are used to investigate Europe's earliest enigma
New Preface and Sequel update the book with key developments since 2005
Website research findings now provided in Greek as well as English
Authors to visit Athens and Kefalonia to present the latest findings in person
(Athens, January 4 2008.) "The award-winning best-seller Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca is now available in Greek. First published by Cambridge University Press in October 2005, the book has been updated with the latest developments from the island of Kefalonia and is published in Athens by Ekdoseis Polytropon.
"Since September 2007 expert teams from FUGRO have been conducting land, sea and air-based surveys of the area with the objective of probing deep into the ground to search for a buried marine seaway. An unprecedented array of gravity, seismic, marine and helicopter-based electromagnetic techniques are being used to test the theory by performing a 'whole body scan' of this 6 kilometre long, 2 kilometre wide isthmus.
"The Odysseus Unbound website has been released in Greek, reporting the latest news and events from the project. A new Preface and Sequel have been added to the book, presenting the key geological and classical developments since 2005."
(Announcement, October 15, 2007) "International geoscientific teams converge on Kefalonia"
"A team of UK geological engineers from Fugro is now working on Kefalonia in conjunction with an Edinburgh PhD programme under the supervision of Professor John Underhill. They are performing land-based seismic, gravity and resistivity tests of terrain mainly in the Thinia district that separates the Paliki peninsula from the rest of Kefalonia.
"An Italian marine geoscientific team from Fugro has commenced a detailed submarine mapping of the bays to the north and south of the Thinia valley, using the latest high resolution sonar equipment.
"Subject to the grant of aviation permits, it is anticipated that a Canadian Fugro team will subsequently perform a helicopter-based survey of the northern Paliki region, using the 'RESOLVE' advanced electromagnetic system shown in the photograph below.
"The data from these surveys will be analysed in the months ahead with the aim of building a 3D visualisation of the geology of this area. It is anticipated that the results of this research will be published during 2008.
"On Thursday October 18 at 19:00 a public briefing about the geological research programme will be delivered by Professor John Underhill and Robert Bittlestone in the Lixouri Theatre, at the invitation of the Mayor of Paliki."
(Announcement, March 21, 2007) "FUGRO teams up with Odysseus Unbound project in the search for Homer's Ithaca"
"Global geoscientific leader brings industry-scale resources to the quest
Airborne, land and marine techniques to diagnose suspected hidden channel
Latest geophysical and survey techniques to tackle earliest classical conundrum
Greece's national geological institute IGME to facilitate the research
Ionian Islands to benefit from research into groundwater and earthquakes
Edinburgh PhD candidate to be sponsored jointly with Britain's NERC
Unique collaboration between industry, academia and government
(London, The Hague and Athens, March 21 2007.) "A major research partnership was announced today between FUGRO (provider of geotechnical, survey and geoscience services) and the authors of Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca (Robert Bittlestone, Professor James Diggle and Professor John Underhill), facilitated by IGME (Greece's geological institute).
"The location of the island of Ithaca that is described in Homer's Odyssey has been an enigma for nearly 3,000 years, but the radical new solution proposed by the authors in late 2005 is looking increasingly plausible as preliminary scientific findings appear to support the hypothesis. FUGRO's sponsorship will now bring industry-scale geophysical techniques to the project, enabling the team to conduct a 'full body scan' of the 6-kilometre long isthmus on the Greek island of Kefallinia that is believed to contain a buried ancient marine connection.
"FUGRO is a world leader in the offshore, onshore and airborne collection and interpretation of data about the earth's surface and the soil and rocks beneath. The company employs about 10,000 staff in over 50 countries. FUGRO Chief Executive Klaas Wester comments:
'The technical challenge presented by the project calls for a broad range of investigative solutions. This is an opportunity for FUGRO to showcase many of the specialised geophysical, geotechnical and survey services that we offer, while at the same time benefiting the local community and supporting research into our areas of expertise. We are very pleased to have the opportunity to contribute our capabilities to this extraordinary project".
(Geoscientist article, February 5, 2007) "Ithaca theory gains support"
"Results of an offshore seismic survey and the first borehole to test the hypothesis that the Paliki peninsula of the Greek island of Kefallinia was once Homer's Ithaca lend weight to the theory. Ted Nield reports.
"The theory that the home of Odysseus, which has never been satisfactorily identified, was in fact a part of the modern island of Kefallinia that was once an island in its own right (Geoscientist 16, 9 p4 et seq.) has received support from the first test borehole. The theory, advanced by British businessman Robert Bittlestone (author of Odysseus Unbound - The Search for Homer's Ithaca - Cambridge University Press), with Cambridge University classicist, Professor James Diggle and Edinburgh University geologist, Professor John Underhill, predicts that the peninsula of Paliki was once separated from the rest of Kefallinia by a narrow, probably tidal channel that subsequently became blocked by landslips. This theory solves a number of disagreements between modern geography and Homer's text - inconsistencies not satisfied by the assumption that Bronze Age Ithaca and the modern island of Ithaki (to the east of Kefallinia) were one and the same island."
(Announcement, January 9, 2007) "Geological breakthrough in finding Homer's Ithaca"
"Results are announced today of new geological work which supports the dramatic theory about the location of Homer's Ithaca put forward by British businessman Robert Bittlestone, Cambridge classicist Professor James Diggle and Edinburgh geologist Professor John Underhill. In their Cambridge University Press best-selling book Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca they proposed that the Ithaca described in Homer's Odyssey is to be found on western Kefallinia, not the Greek island that is today called Ithaki.
"Today's announcement greatly strengthens the case that catastrophic rockfalls and landslides triggered by earthquakes filled in an ancient sea channel and created a landlocked isthmus, joining the previously separate western peninsula of Kefallinia to the rest of the island.
"A 122 metre (400 foot) borehole has been drilled at this isthmus and it met with no solid limestone bedrock right down to sea level and below, providing very strong support for the proposal. A Greek Geological Institute survey has pinpointed a submerged marine valley that lines up precisely with this buried channel. Bulgarian scientists have now located microscopic marine fossils caught up in the rockfall material in the borehole, pointing towards a seawater immersion in the last few thousand years. American ground-penetrating radar has also confirmed the contours of the buried channel, while ancient roads interrupted by landslides have been identified and are still visible on the surface.
"Professor John Underhill comments on the new findings:
"'We drilled down to a depth of 122 metres, which is almost 15 metres below today's sea level, and we didn't meet any solid limestone strata at all. Although this is only a first step in testing whether or not this whole isthmus was once under the sea, it is a very encouraging confirmation of our geological diagnosis.'
"UK TV's Channel 4 News has tonight broadcast an 8-minute news update about the new research that is now available at http://www.channel4.com/news/
"Robert Bittlestone adds:
"'Unlike many historical speculations, our answer to the age-old mystery of Ithaca's location makes a specific prediction that can be scientifically tested by geological techniques. The results of John Underhill's latest tests are very encouraging: they have given us the confidence to move forward with the next stage of major geological diagnostics. It will be a stunning outcome if these confirm the solution proposed in Odysseus Unbound: we shall literally have been given the chance to rewrite the book of history. But this enigma has been with us for over 2,500 years so we must await the next set of results with due patience.'"
(Review, November 30, 2006) in, The New York Review of Books
"In more than one way Bittlestone is the Schliemann de nos jours... Like Schliemann, he had the financial resources to pursue his dream: while Schliemann paid hundreds of diggers to uncover Troy, Bittlestone could command the services not only of an array of experts, but also of infrared satellite cameras, global positioning systems, ground-penetrating radar, and modern seismological techniques. Like Schliemann, he has a healthy respect for intuition. But here the resemblance ceases. Schliemann's instinct was to meet potential opposition head-on and pulverize it. Bittlestone's, to judge from his own account, has always been to defang it with generous charm, invite it to Greece, and profit by its advice...
"His title page lists two coauthors: John Underhill, a distinguished professor of stratigraphy, and James Diggle, the formidable Cambridge classical philologist, editor of Euripides and, most recently, Theophrastus. Consultants who throng his pages (many also accompanying him during his explorations on Ithaca) include, in addition to various scientific pundits, no-nonsense archaeologists such as John Bennet, James Whitley, and the redoubtable Anthony Snodgrass... all of them, Snodgrass included, while gently curbing Bittlestone's wilder flights of fancy, take him seriously. This represents no mean achievement on Bittlestone's part.
"...one last thing, and that the most important, he learned from Schliemann: that nothing will get you further than being triumphantly right. None of his careful cultivation of experts would have got anywhere had he not offered them a persuasive, and dramatic, solution to the 'Ithaca Question'. Most of the enormous, and carefully exploited, publicity generated by his book is owing to this.
"Bittlestone's real achievement -- and by far the most interesting aspect of his book -- is the methodical way in which he marshals scientific and philological expertise to examine and, with luck, confirm his central thesis... confirmation of literary inference by the heavy weapons of modern science and technology is a major triumph, and Bittlestone deserves full credit for it. World experts in both science and literature are cited as concurring. 'Reading the Odyssey,' says that eminent Homerist Gregory Nagy of Harvard, 'is unlikely ever to be the same again.'"
Peter Green, "Review: Finding Ithaca" Volume 53, Number 19, November 30, 2006
(Lecture, November 1, 2006) Edinburgh Geological Society
"Where was Odysseus' homeland? The geological, geomorphological and geophysical evidence for relocating Homer's Ithaca."
On Wednesday November 1st John Underhill will deliver a lecture to the Edinburgh Geological Society with the latest news of the geological researches that he has been supervising on the island of Cephalonia. These are aimed at determining whether or not its western peninsula, called Paliki, was separated from the rest of the island by a narrow marine channel during the Bronze Age period (late Holocene, c. 3000 years ago). If this was the case then Paliki would at that time have been a free-standing island that precisely met Homer.s description "lies low, furthest to sea and towards dusk". The talk will summarise the results of the geological, geophysical and geomorphic methods that have been used over the past three years in an attempt to test the validity of 'Strabo's Channel' as a historical reality. The outcome of this work may provide us with an elegant solution to a 3,000 year old mystery.
The Edinburgh Geological Society was founded in 1834 with the aim of stimulating public interest in geology and the advancement of geological knowledge. It was formed at a time when William IV was on the British throne and Charles Darwin was making his epoch-making voyage in the Beagle.
The lecture is open to the public as well as to members of the Edinburgh Geological Society and it will take place at 19:30 at the Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW.
(Lecture, October 7, 2006) Queens' College Academic Saturday: "Where was Homer's Ithaca?"
"We are sure that the word will spread and that the venture will snowball." Since the first Queens' College Academic Saturday in 1997, this annual day of lectures by Fellows for members and their families has become increasingly popular. On October 7 James Diggle and Robert Bittlestone will present to members and guests the radical proposal of Odysseus Unbound. By that time John Underhill's new paper in Geoscientist will have been published with updated news of the latest year of researches on Cephalonia, and highlights from this will also be included in the presentation. http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/events.html .
(Lecture, September 23, 2006) Lecture in Cambridge for the 16th Alumni Weekend
This seminar for the Cambridge Alumni weekend will present the latest news of events from the former island that is believed to be Odysseus' homeland. The topic will be illustrated throughout with slides, satellite photography and computer animations. The content is aimed at a non-specialist audience as well as those who are studying or lecturing in ancient history, languages, geology, classics or archaeology. The speakers will answer questions at the end and they will be available for further discussions afterwards. http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/events.html.
(Lecture, September 15, 2006) Lecture at Stocklholm University
On September 15 at 14:00 Robert Bittlestone (Chairman, Metapraxis) will present a seminar at Stockholm University on the classical, geological and archaeological discoveries described in his recent book Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca. The book has been co-authored with Professor James Diggle (Classics, Cambridge) and Professor John Underhill (Geology, Edinburgh) and the presentation is open to the public as well as to students and staff of the University. The content is aimed at a non-specialist audience as well as those who are studying or lecturing in ancient history, languages, geology, classics or archaeology. The speaker will answer questions at the end and he will be available for further discussions afterwards. http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/events.html
(Article, September 1, 2006) Underhill, John. "Quest for Ithaca", in Geoscientist (September 2006)
"Geoscientist magazine publishes new geological findings on Strabo's Channel.
"Geoscientist, the monthly colour news magazine of The Geological Society of London, has today published a major new scientific article by John Underhill entitled 'Quest for Ithaca'. The article documents the results of detailed investigations into the isthmus between the eastern land mass of Kefalonia and the western peninsula of Paliki. It describes the geological setting of the island and it includes an up-to-date account of the field-based geoscientific techniques used to test the proposal, both before and after the publication of Odysseus Unbound, up to July 2006. With the kind agreement of Geoscientist magazine, a copy of the published article is now provided on this website.
"The Geological Society of London, founded in 1807, is the UK national society for geoscience and it is the largest national geoscience society in Europe. Geoscientist magazine is the main mouthpiece of the society and is distributed free to all Fellows, with a print run of 10,000 copies.
"'Because the valley floor today rises to c. 180m, it is clearly demanding to suggest that it might have been at sea level as recently as the Bronze Age (late Holocene). As a result, I anticipated that Bittlestone's hypothesis would be easy to test - and disprove. However, rebuttal has not proved at all straightforward. None of the results of geological and geomorphological fieldwork performed so far rules out the hypothesis that a marine connection as described by Strabo could have existed at that time.' Professor John Underhill, Geoscientist September 2006.
"'Odysseus Unbound presents a highly readable personal account of what can happen when an enthusiast with a compelling synthetic vision glimpses a solution no specialist has seen and uses his considerable resources of energy and curiosity to bring renowned experts like Professors Underhill (Geology, Edinburgh University) and Diggle (Classics, Cambridge University) to focus on solving a puzzle that has mystified scholars for centuries. Robert Bittlestone may one day emerge as Homeric studies' Alfred Wegener of the Internet age.' Dr Ted Nield, Editor, Geoscientist magazine."
(Seminar, May 22, 2006) Seminar at the Kingston Readers' Festival, Kingston-upon-Thames
There will be a presentation about Odysseus Unbound at the Kingston Readers' Festival on May 22nd. The topic will be illustrated throughout with slides, satellite photography and computer animations and the content is aimed at a non-specialist audience as well as those who are studying or lecturing in these subjects. Location: Room 102, Town House, Penrhyn Road campus, Kingston University. http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/events.html.
(Lecture, March 29, 2006) Anglo-Hellenic League meeting at the Reform Club in London
Presentation by Bittlestone/Diggle/Underhill. "Over 100 members and guests of the League attended the event, including His Excellency Anastase Skopelitis, Greek Ambassador to the United Kingdom, and his colleague Maria Theofili, the Greek Consul-General. League Chairman Sir David Miers described the event as 'one of the most thought-provoking and most professionally presented lectures we have ever heard'." See: http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/events.html.
(Article, March 22, 2006) Smithsonian Magazine, April issue:
"Odyssey's End? The Search for Ancient Ithaca" -- "A British researcher believes he has at last pinpointed the island to which Homer's wanderer returned. Celebrated writer Fergus Bordewich and award-winning photographer Jeffrey Aaronson visited Kefalonia with Robert Bittlestone in October 2005. 'Half an hour after leaving the pig farm, we park in an olive grove and begin climbing Kastelli.s steep 830-foot-high slopes, through a dense carpet of prickly underbrush. The bells of unseen goats ring in our ears. We scramble over lichen-crusted terraces that might once have supported houses, and then, near the hillcrest, clamber over traces of a defensive wall and heaps of jagged stones... Here, perhaps, with a shield of fourfold hide and a plumed helmet on his heroic head, Odysseus set to his bloody work..." http://www.smithsonianmag.com/issues/2006/april/ithaca.htm
(TV Broadcast & Video Clip, March 20 & 21, 2006) The History Channel broadcasts first film footage from Paliki
The History Channel's "Digging for the Truth" field archaeology program broadcast a documentary about Homer's Troy and Ithaca in the USA on March 20 and 21. The film is called "Troy: Of Gods and Warriors" and it includes the first footage of some of the sites identified in "Odysseus Unbound" on the island of Cephalonia. Video clip available March 28, 2006 online at: http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/news.html.
(Article, March 20, 2006)Joint Association of Classical Teachers /JACTS, "Odysseus Unbound: news and events" (London : Joint Association of Classical Teachers, [March 20,] 2006) http://www.jact.org/events/otherevents.htm.
[Excerpt:]"The controversy about the hypothesis set out in Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer's Ithaca continues (Cambridge University Press, October 2005). The book's author is Robert Bittlestone, with co-authors Professor James Diggle (Classics, Cambridge) and Professor John Underhill (Geology, Edinburgh), and together they have set out to explain why Homer describes Ithaca at Odyssey 9.19-26 as the most westerly of the Ionian Islands, since the island now called Ithaki (see Ithaki's name) is clearly furthest to the east.
"A major plank of their evidence is Strabo's description of Cephalonia at Geography 10.2.15: 'Where the island is narrowest it forms an isthmus so low-lying that it is often submerged from sea to sea.' Such an isthmus has never been identified on Cephalonia, but Bittlestone, Diggle and Underhill think that Paliki, the westernmost peninsula of Cephalonia, was cut off from the rest of the island during the late Bronze Age by a submerged isthmus, which has now been filled in by catastrophic landslides such as those that occurred in Pakistan last year. In the book they identify the geological factors that may have led to these massive rockfalls and they also cite historical evidence which suggests that today's Ithaki was formerly called Doulichion, the 'lost island' of the Odyssey. If they are correct then Paliki was Homer's Ithaca and his geographical descriptions were precise all along...
"This identification of a new 'external geography' for Homeric Ithaca has so far met with cautious approval from classicists and geologists. The authors accept that their theory is not yet proven and they are planning to conduct more extensive tests on the island which should determine the question of this Bronze Age isthmus one way or the other. However, the controversial material in the book concerns the 'internal geography': the question of whether it is also possible to identify on Paliki specific Homeric landmarks from the Odyssey such as Mount Neriton, Mount Neïon, Hermes Hill and Phorcys Bay.
One of the book's appendixes summarises the attempts by other researchers over many centuries to do just that. For example, William Gladstone committed much of his time to the Ithaca enigma and more recently Professor J. V. Luce has proposed specific locations on Ithaki (see Ithaki's name) for seemingly poetical places such as Eumaios' Pigfarm and Raven's Rock (Celebrating Homer's Landscapes Ch. 7). Although the educated public seems willing to consider this possibility, the classical world is divided, with reviewers in journals such as the TLS, THES and JCT itself expressing their concerns while others indicating their enthusiasm for a radical Homeric reappraisal. A more detailed discussion and links to the reviews is available at http://www.odysseus-unbound.org/reviews.html.
"Meanwhile the publication of Odysseus Unbound has captured the imagination of teachers and students world-wide, resulting in sales of over 10,000 copies of the book and a series of international seminars, interviews and film documentaries. A recent audience of several hundred students and guests at King's College School, Wimbledon responded with great enthusiasm: Head of Classics Chris Jackson writes "The reaction from my students the following day was quite overwhelming - it was not possible to do any work in class, as all they wanted to talk about was your presentation." Details of this and other developments are provided at the News, Events and Press sections of the above website..."
(Article, March 10, 2006) Palaima, Tom. "Enigma spat out from the jaws of the sea", in The Times Higher Education Supplement (March 10, 2006) ISSN 0049-3929 ; see http://www.thes.co.uk/.
(Article, 2006) Neville, James. "Review: Bittlestone, R. with Diggle, J. and Underhill, J., 'Odysseus Unbound'", in Journal of Classics Teaching, volume 7, issue 32 (London : Joint Association of Classical Teachers, 2006) ISSN 1741-7627 ; see http://www.jact.org/publications/review.php#data.
(Article, 2006) Purves, Alex. "Unmarked Space: Odysseus and the Inland Journey", in Arethusa, volume 39, number 1, pp. 1-20 (2006) ISSN 0004-0975, see also Project Muse; 20060131.
Newest scholarship... always interesting...
(Book, 2006) Vinci, Felice. The Baltic origins of Homer's epic tales : the Iliad, the Odyssey, and the migration of myth (Rochester, Vt. : Inner Traditions, 2006) xiii, 370 p. : maps ; 23 cm., ISBN 1594770522.
Contents: Ulysses homeward bound : the islands of Ogygia and the land of Scheria -- Ithaca's archipelago : Dulichium, Same, and Zacynthus -- Ithaca -- The adventures of Ulysses -- Ulysses and northern mythology -- If "this is not the site of the ancient Ilium," where was Troy? -- War! -- Neighboring lands and islands -- Climate and chronology : the northern origin of the Mycenaeans -- The catalog of ships : the northern Achaean world -- The regions of the Peloponnese -- Crete, the River Egypt, Pharos, and Phthia -- Finding the home of the gods -- Climate change and the migration of culture -- Solar, stellar, and lunar myths.
Wild scholarship, perhaps: "Homer-in-the-Baltics" -- interesting for contrasts, at least...
(Book, 2006) Homer. The Odyssey (Baltimore, Md. ; London : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006) tr. Edward McCrorie ; 472 p. ; 24 cm. ; ISBN 0801882672 ; intro. and notes by Richard P. Martin.
Latest translation... always interesting, as well, particularly for the latest "introduction" which comes with it and covers the newest scholarship... this edition, too, has perhaps the best cover shot ever done for the Odyssey, showing that battered old suitcase on the beach...
[Review excerpt:]"I've just finished reading Odysseus Unbound and I have to say that the experience was utterly enthralling from start to finish. Robert Bittlestone is simply spell-binding... even if the place identified as Homer's Ithaca should turn out not to be Ithaca after all, the book will live on as the thrilling account of an intellectual adventure of enduring appeal in itself.
"Bittlestone has had the benefit of expert advice from James Diggle, probably the greatest living Hellenist, and John Underhill, professor at the University of Edinburgh (well known to football fans: he referees for FIFA). The fact that Bittlestone is not a professional classicist is a bonus in many ways: not least because, had he been one, he would never have embarked on any of this, as classicists are wary of taking Homer "literally". Bittlestone seems to have proved them wrong.
"Scholars will now have to think again about received wisdom on the Odyssey (i.e. the poet of the Odyssey paradoxically knows lots about Crete but is a clueless ignoramus when it comes to Ithaca...). The main result of this book for Homeric studies is that, if this new Ithaca is indeed ancient Ithaca, the Odyssey might have to be read as having begun life as an Ithacan poem. Professional Homerists will easily grasp how earth-shattering this conclusion is.
[The writer is the author of, inter alia: HOMERO, ca 850 a.C. (Lisboa : Livros Cotovia, 2003) ISBN 972-795-060-4 ; Note: Odisseia / Homero, trad. Frederico Lourenço.]
The above is the "study" principally in question in the entire article here: a wonderfully-good read, sumptuously and interestingly illustrated, and presented in an intriguing "whodunit" format -- good literature, supported by good scholarship and science -- making this a book anyone might enjoy and few will want to put down until they finish it.
(Dissertation, 2005) Rahl, Jeffrey M. Tectonic evolution of the Hellenic (Greece) and Otago (New Zealand) subduction wedges, Description: 208 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm. ; Note(s): Includes bibliographical references (leaves 189-208)/ Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Yale University, 2005./ Reproduction: Microfilm./ Ann Arbor, Mich. :/ ProQuest,/ 2005./ 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.
(Article, 2005) Geroux, Robert. "Regarding Homer/Homer Regarding: Odysseus' Scar, Time, and the Origins of Subjectivity in Myth", in KronoScope, volume 5, number 2, pp. 237-257 (2005) ISSN 1567-715X.
(Article, 2005) Marks, J. "The Ongoing Neikos : Thersites, Odysseus, and Achilleus", in American Journal of Philology, volume 126, number 1, pp. 1-31 (2005) ISSN 0002-9475 ; see also Project Muse; 20050329.
(Book, 2004) Alsop, G. Ian. Flow processes in faults and shear zones (London : Geological Society, 2004) Description: vi, 379 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 26 cm. ; Series: Geological Society special publication number224; Note : includes "Ductile shearing, hydrous fluid channelling and high-pressure metamorphism along the basement-cover contact on Sikinos, Cyclades, Greece" by S. Gupta & M. J. Bickle.
(Book, 2004) Bernet, Matthias, and Cornelia Spiegel. Detrital thermochronology : provenance analysis, exhumation, and landscape evolution of mountain belts (Boulder, Colo. : Geological Society of America, 2004) Description: iii, 126 p. : ill. ; 28 cm. ; Series: Special papers (Geological Society of America) 378 ; ISBN 0813723787 ; Note : includes " Miocene siliciclastic deposits of Naxos Island : geodynamic and environmental implications for the evolution of the southern Aegean Sea (Greece)" by J. Kuhlemann ... [et al.].
(Book, 2004) Brckovic, Berislav. Odisejeva Itaka : odredenje Itake koje se temelji na Homerovim podacima u Odiseji (Zagreb : Multigraf, 2004) ISBN 95360601832 ; dop. izd. 145 : ill., maps ; 34 cm. ; see also Brckovic, Berislav. Odisejeva Itaka (Zagreb : Izvori, 2002) ISBN 9532031294 ; 152 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm. ; WorldCat subject classifications for both editions : Geographic: Ithaca Island (Greece) -- In literature. Cephalonia Island (Greece) -- Antiquities. See: http://www.odysseus-ithaca.net
Author : Brckovic, Berislav.
Title : Odisejeva Itaka : odredenje Itake koje se temelji na
Homerovim podacima u Odiseji / Berislav Brckovic. Odysseus' Ithaca:
locating Ithaca based on the facts presented by Homer in the Odyssey
Edition : 2. dop. izd.
Published : Zagreb : Multigraf, 2004.
Location : Widener WID-LC PA4167.A2 B73 2004
Description : 145 : ill., maps ; 34 cm.
Language note : In Croatian with a parallel text in English.
Notes : Includes bibliographical references (p. 142) and index.
ISBN : 9536060183
Subject : Homer. Odyssey.
Subject : Cephalonia Island (Greece) -- Antiquities;
Ithaca Island (Greece) -- In literature.
Title : Odysseus's [sic] Ithaca
HOLLIS Number : 009704229
See also: Bryn Mawr Classical Review (2005.12.22) "Brckovic on Culumovic on Brckovic. Response to 2005.09.15... Response by Berislav Brckovic... 'Berislav Brckovic collects all the references to Ithaca in the Iliad and the Odyssey, discusses in detail the more...'" http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2005/2005-12-22.html
"Anyone wishing to discuss the views on Ithaca contained in the reference cited above may reach the author via email to the following address: firstname.lastname@example.org"
"Berislav Brckovic was born in 1947. He graduated from the Faculty of Law at the University of Zagreb. His profession as a municipal judge has taken him to Zagreb, where he lives with his family today. As a dedicated admirer of Homer, Brckovic has taken up the problem known in Homeric studies as the 'Ithaca Question' (Itkaca Frage). This book is the result of several years of research by the author at locations in Greece, having established that these are the places Homer described in the Odyssey as Odysseus' homeland of Ithaca.
"Where exactly was Odysseus' homeland of Ithaca? Despite the fact that, during antiquity, the present-day Ionian island of Thiaki was called Ithaca, contemporary science generally rejects the thesis that this was the home of Homer's hero Odysseus. The most detailed attempt to determine the location of Ithaca, based on the text of the Odyssey and on archaelogical excavations, was provided by the archaeologist Dorpfeld. In his work, "Alt Ithaca", he argues that the correct Ithaca is the present-day island of Levkas. However, this theory is not widely accepted. Based on the text of the Odyssey, and combining this with fieldwork guided by his reading of the Odyssey, Berislav Brckovic has concluded that the real Ithaca was located in what is today the peninsula of Erisos, located in the north of the largest Ionian island of Cephallonia. The book is an attempt to prove this thesis.
"The author has examined all the lines of the Odyssey that mention Ithaca, locations there that are referred to either by name or through a description, and the features through which Homer depicts the location of Ithaca, in the discourse of his heroes Odysseus, Telemachus and other characters of this famous story. Convinced that Homer's lines are not poetic fiction, but a depiction of real places, the author searches for these places and finds them on the Erisos peninsula of Cephallonia. Through a linguistic analysis and interpretation of Homer's lines, the author establishes the correspondence between the poet's words and real places.
"The author attempts to make his interpretation as precise as possible, remaining true to the meaning of the Greek words and expressions, incorporating them logically in his explanations, and avoiding assumptions for which he believes there is no confirmation in Homer's lines. With a simple but comprehensive interpretation, the author sets out to convince us that each detail, separately examined in its own chapter, can be linked with the actual locations he considers to be the correct Ithaca.
"The subject of the book, the location of Odysseus' Ithaca, still is considered unresolved. For this reason, this work is significant not only for classical philology and archeology, but also for the wider public. The book examines the subject in conformity with the standards of philological science, and the author's approach sheds new light on the problem at hand.
"The author visited the location to which he links his interpretation of Homer's lines on three occasions, and is fully convinced that his thesis is true. There is almost complete correspondence between the lines and some of the locations, and although archaeological science first has to prove whether Brckovic's thesis is true, the evidence here presented, which is in accordance with scientific criteria, will be hard to ignore in the discussion of the location of Odysseus' Ithaca."
-- From the review by Damir Salopek, senior foreign language instructor at the Department of Classical Philology of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb. (op. cit. supra : Edition 2. dop. izd., second expanded edition, Zagreb, Multigraf, 2004. See also: "Exclusive : Great scientific discovery by Berislav Brckovic, Judge of the Municipal Court in Zagreb : Odysseus' Ithaca is not an island.", in Vecernji list (Croatia, September 28, 2002), page 17, ISSN 0350-5006, cits. per author. (Vecernji list W3: http://www.vecernji-list.hr/home/index.do.)
(Conference Proceedings, 2004) Dobrzanska, Halina, and Erzsébet Jerem et al. The geoarchaeology of river valleys Corporate Author: European Association of Archaeologists Meeting (8th, 2002, Thessalonike, Greece) (Budapest : Archaeolingua, 2004) Description: 216 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Series: Archaeolingua Series minor 18 ; ISBN 9638046481 ; Note : Papers presented at the 8th annual meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, held in Thessaloniki, Greece, 24-29 September, 2002.
(Book, 2003) Zachos, Konstantinos L., and James Wiseman. Landscape archaeology in Southern Epirus, Greece Corporate Author: American School of Classical Studies at Athens (Athens : American School of Classical Studies at Athens ; Oxford Oxbow, 2003) Description: xvii, 292 p. : ill. (some col.). maps, plans ; 28 cm. ; Series: Hesperia Supplement 32 ; ISBN 0876615329.
(Dissertation, 2002) Brett, Jenefer L. R.. A numerical and analytical study of landform development, erosion and drainage patterns produced by active normal faulting in Greece Description: xviii, 245 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Subjects: Morphology-Research, Submarine geology : Note(s): BLDSC reference no.: D225198./ Supervisor: B.E. Parsons, P.C. England./ Includes bibliographical references./ Dissertation: Thesis (D. Phil.)--University of Oxford, 2002.
(Book, 2002) Steinhart, Matthias, with Eckhard Wirbelauer. Aus der Heimat des Odysseus : Reisende, Grabungen und Funde auf Ithaka und Kephallenia bis zum ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert (Mainz : P. von Zabern, c2002), Series Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt Bd. 87, ISBN 3805328354.
(Book, 2000) Snodgrass, Anthony M.. The dark age of Greece : an archaeological survey of the eleventh to the eighth centuries BC (New York : Routledge, c2000) ISBN 0415936357 (hb), ISBN 0415936365 (pb).
Archaeology in the grand tradition, informed by modern technique and new approaches: the Introduction explains the time-of-troubles period following the Mycenean Age -- eloquently, carefully, reminding us both of what we know and what we do not. This Greek Dark Ages was the time which perhaps saw the tales in the "text" of the Odyssey "transmitted", with the Ionian Migration, from Paliki/Ithaca on the Adriatic, across Greece, and finally over to Western Anatolia on the Aegean, and to "Homer": a fascinating model for how texts evolve... Any speculation about a period of which we know very little needs to get grounded in fact, though, or it remains just speculation, as Snodgrass gently but firmly reminds us.
(Book, 2000) McGuire, Bill. The archaeology of geological catastrophes (London : Geological Society, 2000) Description: ix, 417 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 26 cm. ; Series: Geological Society special publication number 171; ISBN: 1862390622.
Note : includes,
"A critical reappraisal of the classical texts and archaeological evidence for earthquakes in the Atalanti region, central mainland Greece" by Victoria Buck and Iain Stewart
"Ground-penetrating radar mapping of Minoan volcanic; deposits and the Late Bronze Age palaeotopography, Thera, Greece" by James K. Russell and Mark V. Stasiuk
"Precursory phenomena and destructive events related to the Late Bronze Age Minoan (Thera, Greece) and AD 79 (Vesuvius, Italy) Plinian eruptions : inferences from the stratigraphy in the archaeological areas" by Raffaello Cioni [et al.].
(Book, 2000) Hunt, D. and Robert L. Gawthorpe. Sedimentary responses to forced regressions (London : Geological Society, 2000) ISBN 1862390630 ; Series: Geological Society special publication number 172 ; Note: contains "Along-strike variability of forced regressive deposits : Late Quaternary, northern Peloponnesos, Greece, by L.S. McMurray, R.L. Gawthorpe.
(Conference Proceedings, 2000) Stiros, Stathis C. Records of rapid change in the late quaternary coastal sediments and landforms : selected papers from the International Geological Correlation Programme project 367 "Records of Rapid Change in the Late Quaternary", held in Corinth, Greece, 10-19 September 1998 (Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2000) Description: VI, 249 S. ; Series: Marine geology 170, 1/2 Special issue.
(Book, 1999) Manning, Sturt W.. A test of time : the volcano of Thera and the chronology and history of the Aegean and east Mediterranean in the mid second millennium BC (Oxford : Oxbow Books, 1999) ISBN 1900188996.
(Book, 1998) Wood, Michael. In Search of the Trojan War (Berkeley, California : University of California Press, 1998) ISBN 0520215990 ; see Michael Wood.
The above author's impassioned approach, which he brings to all his books and TV series and videos, focused here on the Trojan War -- in his intriguing format, with fine photos... Any beginner, to any of this, should begin here; but any veteran, as well, will enjoy the sheer energy of Wood's presentation, and the sense of fun he injects into the adventure of finding things, such as Troy, and such as Paliki, Homer's Ithaca.
(Book, 1998) Livadas Toumasatos, Nikolaos Gerasimou. Kephallenia : he apokalypse tes Omerikes Ithakes (Athena : N.G. Livadas Toumasatos, 1998) Description: xxxii, 427 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm. ; ISBN 9609080308.
(Book, 1998) Mills, Rachel A., and Keith Harrison. Modern ocean floor processes and the geological record (London : Geological Society, 1998) ISBN 1862390231 ; Series : Geological Society special publication number 148 ; Note : includes "Significance of modern and ancient oceanic Mn-rich hydrothermal sediments, exemplified by Jurassic Mn-cherts from Southern Greece", by A. Robertson and P. Degnan.
(Book, 1998) Luce, John Victor. Celebrating Homer's landscapes : Troy and Ithaca revisited (New Haven : Yale University Press, 1998) Description: xi, 260 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. ; ISBN 0300074115.
(Book, 1996) Ahl, Frederick, and Hanna M. Roisman. The Odyssey re-formed (Ithaca, New York : Cornell University Press, 1996) ISBN 0801432219, ISBN 0801483352.
If you believe you've "read the Odyssey", the above would be a very good book to read. Ahl & Roisman ask all the questions which you never thought of asking, and they supply quite a few of the answers, although not all.
(Book, 1996) Nagy, Gregory. Homeric questions (Austin, Texas : University of Texas Press, 1996) ISBN 0292755619, ISBN 0292755627 ; see Gregory Nagy.
Nagy poses the newer questions, since Finley and Bowra and the rest of that era, which the work of Milman Parry and others have caused us to ask about the older model of how, as we used to say, "Homer"... "wrote"... the "Odyssey". The fascinating modern view of how "texts", such as the Odyssey, get made and performed and transmitted...
(Paper, 1996) Strios, S. and R.E. Jones, eds. Archaeoseismology (Athens : Institute of Geology & Mineral Exploration, British School at Athens, 1996) Description : viii, 268 p. : ill. : 26 cm, Series : Fitch Laboratory occasional paper 7 ; Note : Includes bibliographical references and indexes ; ISBN 090488726X.
(Book, 1996) Higgins, Michael Denis, and Reynold Higgins. A geological companion to Greece and the Aegean (Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1996) Description : xvi, 240 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm. ; Note : Includes bibliographical references (p. 223-233) and index. ; ISBN 0801433371.
Contents : 1. The Geological Background -- 2. Geological History of the Mediterranean -- 3. Attica -- 4. The Islands of the Saronic Gulf, and Methana -- 5. Corinthia and the Argolid -- 6. Laconia and Messenia -- 7. Elis, Achaea and Arcadia -- 8. Central Greece -- 9. Thessaly and the Northern Sporades -- 10. North-west Greece and the Ionian Islands -- 11. Greek Macedonia -- 12. Thrace, the Dardanelles and Adjacent Islands -- 13. The Eastern Sporades and the Ionian Shore -- 14. The Dodecanese and the Carian Shore -- 15. The Cyclades -- 16. Crete -- 17. Future Geological Hazards -- App. 1. Marbles and other related stones -- App. 2. Glossary of geological terms.
(Book, 1989) Wathelet, Paul. Les Troyens de l'Iliade : mythe et histoire (Paris : Belles Lettres, 1989) Series : Liege. Universite. Faculte de philosophie et lettres. Bibliotheque. no.252. ISBN 2251662510.
(Conference Proceedings, 1988) Marinos, Paul G., and George C. Koukis. The engineering geology of ancient works, monuments and historical sites : preservation and conservation : proceedings of an international symposium organized by the Greek National Group of IAEG, Athens, 19-23 September 1988 Corporate authors : Greek National Group of IAEG. ; International Association of Engineering Geology. ; Greece.; Hypourgeio Politismou. (Rotterdam ; Brookfield : A.A. Balkema, 1988-1989) Description: 4 v. : ill. ; 26 cm., ISBN: 906191793X (set).
Contents: v. 1. Engineering geology and the protection of historical sites and monuments -- v. 2. Engineering geology and building stones of historical monuments. Geoscience and archaeological exploration -- v. 3. Earthquakes, vibrations and other hazards in relation to the study and the protection of monuments and historical sites. Environmental geology and historical sites. Engineering geology in the past. Special session, the acropolis of Athens -- v. 4. Post conference proceedings.
(Paper, 1987) Meyer, Klaus. Periodic variations of the electric field of the earth prior to imminent large earthquakes in Greece (Uppsala, Sweden : Seismological Department, Uppsala University, 1987), Description : 11 p. : map. ; 30 cm. ; Series : Report (Uppsala Universitet. Seismological Dept.) 3-85. ; Note : Includes bibliographical references.
(TV Series & Video, 1986) Wood, Michael. In search of the Trojan War (Manchester, UK : British Broadcasting Corporation, 1986) http://imdb.com/title/tt0409571/ 6 videocassettes (VHS) (50 min. each) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. ; see also (Warner Home Video, April 27, 2004) DVD.
Michael Wood's compelling video version of his 1998 book (above): anyone with 6 hours available, to watch and listen and wonder, will come away informed, entertained, intrigued...
(Book, 1986) Geologie von Griechenland, herausgegeben von Volker Jacobshagen, in Zusammenarbeit mit Stefan Dürr ... [et al.] ; mit Beiträgen von Ulrich Dornsiepen, Peter Giese und Eckard Wallbrecher (Berlin : Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1986) Description : ix, 363 p., 4 folded leaves of plates : ill., maps ; 25 cm. ; Series : Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde Bd. 19 ; Note : summaries in English, two maps on folded leaves in pocket, index. ; Note : Bibliography: p. -350 ; ISBN 3443110193.
(Paper, 1983) Beth, Markus. "Earthquake frequency and energy in Greece", in Tectonophysics (Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, 1983) volume 95, number 3/4 (June 10, 1983) p. 233-266, ill., maps.
(Book, 1977) Makris, Jannis. Geophysical investigations of the Hellenides (Hamburg : Wittenborn, 1977), Description : 124 p. : ill. ; 30 cm. ; Series : Hamburger geophysikalische Einzelschriften.Reihe A:Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen heft 34 ; Note : Bibliography p. 119-124.
(Paper, 1975) Mulder, E. F. J. de. Microfauna and sedimentary-tectonic history of the Oligo-Miocene of the Ionian Islands and Western Epirus (Greece) ([Utrecht : Dept. of Stratigraphy and Paleontology, State University of Utrecht, 1975]), Series : Utrecht micropaleontological bulletins 13.
(Book, 1973) Phrankoul, Vas. E.. Leukas, he Homerike Ithake : he theoria tou W. Dörpfeld : apodosis tou ergou "Alt Ithaka" kai scholia (Athenai : Hetaireia Leukadikon Meleton, 1973), Series : Epeteris (Hetaireia Leukadikon Meleton) t. 2.
(Paper, 1972) Kraft, John Christian. A reconnaissance of the geology of the sandy coastal areas of eastern Greece and the Peloponnese, with speculations on middle-late Helladic paleogeography (3000-4000 years before present) ([Newark, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, 1972]), Description : 158 p. illus. 28 cm. ; Series : University of Delaware. College of Marine Studies. Technical report, no. 9 CMS no. 2GLO47 ; Note : Bibliography p. 151-154.
(Book, 1972) Maratos, Georgios N. Geologia tes Hellados (Athenai : Hekdosis Geotechnikon Grapheion, 1972-), Description : 189 p.,  leaves of plates (some folded) : ill. (1 col.), maps (1 col.) ; 25 cm. ; Note : One folded col. map attached to back cover. ; Note : Bibliography v. 1, p. -189. Contents : tomos 1. Stromatographia-tektonike., metallogenesis-oryktos ploutos.
(Book, 1970) Thomas, Carol G.. Homer's history : Mycenaean or Dark Age? (New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, ) ISBN 0030767709.
(Book, 1955) Renz, Carl. Die vorneogene Stratigraphie der normalsedimentären Formationen Griechenlands (Athens : Institute for Geology and Subsurface Research, 1955), Description : xvi, 637p. illus., group port., maps (part. fold. col.) 29 cm. ; Note : includes bibliographies. ; see also, Renz, Carl. Die vorneogene Stratigraphie der normalsedimentären Formationen Griechenlands. Erganzungsheft; Fossilien- Orto Sch- Register und Tektonische Unbersichtskarte (Athens, Institute for Geology and Subsurface Research, 1957), Description : 55 p. fold. map 29 cm. ; Note : includes bibliographies.
(Book, 1954) Finley, Moses I.. The world of Odysseus (New York : New York Review of Books, c2002 [c1954]) ISBN 1590170172 ; introduction by Bernard Knox; Series : New York Review Books classics ; see Moses Finley.
Finley was one of the greatest of the Young Turks from the last century, in Classics, one whose brief and elegant works greatly popularized and sometimes revolutionized the way new generations looked at the old scholarship, introduced here by another. Finley's The World of Odysseus has become a classic work: despite outdated details it remains an excellent introduction to Odysseus and things Odyssean, and unlike much of its more up-to-date competition it is blessedly short and eminently readable.
(Book, 1954) Stanford, William Bedell. The Ulysses theme; a study in the adaptability of a traditional hero (Dallas : Spring Publications, 1992 ) with foreword by Charles Boer ; (New York : Barnes & Noble, 1968 ) reprint with corrections and additions ; (Oxford : Blackwell & Mott, 1963) revised edition ; (Oxford : Blackwell, 1954).
A grand attempt, by another great classicist, to carry Odysseus/Ulysses forward in time, not just since Ithaca and the Trojan War, and Homer, but all the way up to the author's 20th c. present-day: a reminder that wily Odysseus "polutropon" has not always been viewed so heroically, throughout history, as we view him today.
(Book, 1952) Bowra, Cecil Maurice. Heroic poetry (London : Macmillan, 1964 [c1952]) see Maurice Bowra.
Tender loving care, by one of the last century's greatest classicists, gently applied to the entire question of why we have this need for "heroes", and how we express it in our poetry -- a prime example of the old scholarship, 20th & 19th & even 18th c., which established so much of what we have today, in the Classics.
(Book, 1949) Mireaux, Emile. Les poèmes homèriques et l'histoire grecque (Paris, Albin Michel [1948-49]), Contents 1. Homère de Chios et les routes de l'étain.--2. L'Iliade, l'Odyssée et les rivalités coloniales.
(Book, 1948) Barker, Ernest. Traditions of civility (Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press, 1948).
(Book, 1946) Carpenter, Rhys. Folk tale, fiction, and saga in the Homeric epics (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1962) Sather Classical Lectures v. 20 ; (Berkeley : University of California Press, 1946).
(Article, 1931) Carnoy, A. "Les mythes Indiens de Matariçvan-Agni et ceux d'Ulysse en Grèce", in Museon, volume xliv (1931) p. 319-334.
How artificial are distinctions made previously, at times when both "Odysseus" and "Ithaca" were thought to have been entirely fictional? How much of both what we now understand and what we have understood in the past, is or has been "fiction" and how much "fact"?
(Book, 1928) Burrage, Champlin. The Ithaca of the Odyssey; a new attempt to show that Thiáki is the Ithaca of Homer and to discover the lost sites of the hut of Eumaeus, the spring of Ithacus, Neritus and Polyctor, the farm & house of Laertes, the city and port of Ithaca, and the palace of Odysseus... (Oxford, B.H. Blackwell, 1928) Description: 42 p., 1 l. VI pl. (incl. map) on 3 l. 26 cm..
(Book, 1927) Dörpfeld, Wilhelm. Alt-Ithaka : ein Beitrag zur Homer-Frage, Studien und Ausgrabungen aus der insel Leukas-Ithaka (München : R. Uhde, 1927) ; (Osnabrück : Zeller, 1965).
See Goessler, below.
(Book, 1924) Allen, Thomas William. Homer, the origins and transmission (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1924).
(Article, 1911) Croiset, Maurice. "Observations sur la légende primitive d'Ulysse", in Mémoires de l'Institut National de France, Académiedes inscriptions et belles-lettres, volume xxxviii, number 2 (1911), p. 171-214.
(Book, 1910) Lang, Andrew. The world of Homer (London : Longmans Green, 1910) ; ([New York, AMS Press, 1968]) reprint.
(Book, 1908) Lang, Andrew. Anthropology and the Classics (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1908).
(Book, 1907) Murray, Gilbert. The Rise of the Greek Epic (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1907) ; (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1911) ; (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1924) ; (London : Oxford University Press, 1934) ; (New York : Oxford University Press, 1960) ; (London : Oxford University Press, 1961).
(Book, 1904) Goessler, Peter. Leukas-Ithaka; die Heimat des Odysseus (Stuttgart, J.B. Metzlerscher, 1904).
See Dörpfeld, above.
(Paper, 1903) Manly, William Gwathmey. Ithaca or Leucas? ([Columbia, Missouri] : The University of Missouri, 1903) Description: 3 p. l., 52 p. pl., maps. 27 cm. ; Series: The University of Missouri studies, v. 2, no. 1.
(Book, 1902) Bérard, Victor. Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée (Paris : Armand Colin, 1902-3).
What might new knowledge -- detailed knowledge, of Paliki and its seafaring trade, obtained from archaeology and geology and oceanography and other sources -- add to, or change, of previous thoughts & suspicions regarding the role of seafarers, such as the Phoenicians, in the Odyssey.
(Article, 1898) Cesareo, P.. "L'evoluzione storica del carattere d'Ulisse", in Rivista di Storia Antica, volume iii (1898) p. 75-102, and volume iv (1899) p. 17-38 and 383-412.
A 19th century view, Italian...
(Article, 1895) Meyer, E. "Der Urspring des Odysseus mythus", in Hermes, volume xxx (1895), p. 241-273.
(Book, 1894) Chaignet, Antelme-Édouard. Les Héros et les héroines d'Homère (Hachette : Paris, 1894)
A 19th century view, French...
(Book, 1880) Riemann, Othon. Recherches archéologiques sur les Îles ioniennes (Paris : E. Thorin, 1879-1880), Series : Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome fasc. 8, 12, 18.
(Book, 1878) Geddes, William Duguid. The problem of the Homeric poems (London : Macmillan, 1878).
A 19th century view, English...
Contents: Introductory.--The Wolfian theory.--A 'Via media'.--The two epics compared.--Outline of new grouping.--Failure of old Chorizontic grouping.--Criterion as to geographical knowledge.--Criterion as to humour and pathos.
Annales géologiques des pays hellèniques (Athènes : Laboratoire de géologie de l'Université), Publishing History : 1e sér., t. 1 (1942/47)-, Note : Table alphabétique par volume: v. 1 (1942)-v. 25 (1974) (Publication hors-série) with v. 25, ISSN 0402-4664.
Deltion tes Hellenike.s Geologikes Hetaireias [Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece] ( Athenai : Hellenike. Geologike. Hetaireia), Publishing History : tom. (1-) (1953-), ISSN 0438-9557.
Eidikai meletai epi tes gelogias tes Hellados [Geology of Greece] (Athenai, Institouton Geologias kai Ereneunon Hypedaphous) Publishing History : no. 1-14; 1951-1980 ; Note : No. 1- published also in Geological annals of Greece ISSN 0434-6238.
Geologikai kai geophysikai meletai [Geological and geophysical research] (Athenai : Institouton Geologias kai Ereunon Hypedaphous), Publishing History : t. (1-) (1951-).
-- and there are many translations of the Odyssey tale of Homer available, now. The best suggestion is to read at least two, and even better several, as "shades of meaning" always can be found: "shades of meaning" which can mean many different things, to different people, and which can mislead -- for example mislead as to the exact location, and characteristics, of places fantastical or occasionally even real, such as "Ithaca".
1^ The anthropologist Laura Nader's distinction, between "face-to-face" and "face-to-faceless" human contacts: first noticed and analyzed by her in a Oaxacan village, in the differences between normal everyday contacts and legal relations, but increasingly characteristic of many of the differences between non-digital and digital human communication --
Nader, Laura. Harmony ideology : justice and control in a Zapotec mountain village (Stanford, California : Stanford University Press, 1990) ISBN 0804718091.
Rockefeller, Terry Kay. Little Injustices : Laura Nader Looks at the Law (Watertown, Massachusetts : Documentary Education Resources, 2003 [c1981]) video vhs, film 16mm, color, 59 min.
2^"The clouds which envelope the early history of Greece are lighted up by the brilliant hues of Grecian fable; but the reader must carefully guard against believing in the reality of the personages or of the events commemorated by these beautiful legends. Some of them, it is true, probably sprang out of events which actually occurred, and may therefore contain a kernel of historical truth; but we have no means of distinguishing between what is true and what is false, between the historical facts and their subsequent embellishments. Till events are recorded in written documents, no materials exist for a trustworthy history; and it was not till the epoch known by the name of the first Olympiad, corresponding to the year 776 before Christ, that the Greeks began to employ writing as a means for perpetuating the memory of any historical facts. Before that period everything is vague and uncertain..."
-- William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.. The Student's Greece : A History of Greece, from the Earliest Times to the Roman Conquest (London : John Murray, Albermarle Street, 1871) p. 11-12.
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