Timeline: The Early War Years 1914-1932
|Date||Context||Counterculture Events||The Arts||The Period|
The generation that grew up during the Gay Nineties and the Progressive
Period dies in the trenches.
Those that don't die go into shock at the world's first mechanized and faceless war. In Europe, pessimism. --
June 28 - Archduke Ferdinand shot by Serbian Black Hand
July 28 - WORLD WAR I starts in Europe
Last carrier pigeon dies (in US zoo)
?second car suburb: Beverly Hills, California (check date)
First cross continental telephone call made.
- Ludlow Massacre ends Colorado coal strike
May - Emmeline Pankhurst, feminist suffragette, is prevented from bearding the king at Buckingham Palace
June - Bologna, Ancona and other Italian cities declare themselves independent
July 28 - 27 anti-war meetings in Berlin
Llano del Rio community, Antelope Valley, California (1917/18 move to near Leesville, Louisiana 20,000 acres, called Newllano, lasted to 1938)
Pisgah Grande community, Santa Susana mountains of Southern California (Pentecosta Christian to 1921; 1939- moved to San Bernardino mountains, then Pikeville, Tenn. to 1950s?)
South African government makes important concessions to Gandhi's demands, including recognition of Indian marriages and abolition of the poll tax for them. His work in South Africa complete, Gandhi returns to India.
1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues
Aldous Huxley turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad
Berlin ?first pop?
Giorgio De Chirico: "Mystery and Melancholy of a Street"
Charlie Chaplin (25) first films & becomes a star with the introduction of his tramp character.
Fellowship of Reconciliation founded at the outbreak of the First World War by two Christians, Henry Hodgkin (an English Quaker) and Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze (a German Lutheran), who were about to be parted by the oncoming war. On the platform of the railway station at Cologne, they pledged to each other that, "We are one in Christ and can never be at war." To take that pledge forward, Hodgkin organised a conference in Cambridge at which over a hundred Christians of all denominations agreed to found the FoR.
Lost Generation (Nomad)
continues to turn 20
Dorothy Parker 20
Tetanus epidemics in the trenches (& venereal disease)
First transcontinental phone call
Patrick Geddes: Cities in Evolution - predicts megalopolis
400% inflation in Russia
migration from the south (some 90% still there) begins, as the war cuts
off flow of immigration to the north and work is available in munitions
and other factories
Joe Hill executed in Utah
Margaret Sanger jailed for writing "Family Limitation," first book on birth control
1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues
Robert Graves turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad
Francis Picabia & Duchamp's
first trip to US (NY); meets Alfred Stieglitz & Picabia & Man
Panama-Pacific Fair international
exposition in San Francisco marks opening of Panama Canal, begins craze
for Hawaiian music
Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes first woman member of US Congress
Army ROTC created by the National Defense Act of 1916; commissioned its first class of lieutenants in 1920
San Francisco Preparedness Parade bomb kills 9 people; Tom Mooney &
Warren Billings arrested & spend 20 years in prison
Margaret Sanger joins in opening first birth control clinic
Rabindranath Tagore (65) (poet, writer) visits US
1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues i.e. John Reed, Louise Bryant
Also in Greenwich Village: Dorothy Day (1897-1980) "in her 20s, so from 1917 on xxxx
August - Dancer Mata Hari presents herself to Captain Ladoux of French intelligence and announces her intention to change the course of World War I by espionage.
5 - Dada born as conscientious objectors meet in Zurich: Tristan Tzara (20)
(Romanian poet); Marcel Janco (21) (Romanian poet and painter); Hugo Ball
(30) (German poet & philosopher); Hans (Jean) Arp (30) (Alsatian, later
a sculptor) - first "Cabaret Voltaire" at Hollandische Malerei
On June 23 Cabaret Voltaire shut down by public demand.
James Joyce (34): Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Jazz sweeps the U.S.
April 6 - US enters WORLD
gains in elections.
Summer: Socialist antiwar meetings draw 5000, 10,000, 20,000
June - Espionage Act passed (The Masses and other periodicals containing antiwar articles banned from the mails)
July - First open urban riot: East St Louis
July 1 - Boston: 8000 anti-war marchers
65,000 conscientious objectors; 900 imprisoned under Espionage Act; 450 arrested in Green Corn anti-draft Rebellion.
September - Department of Justice raids on 48 IWW meeting halls; 165 Wobblies arrested for conspiracy to hinder the draft.
when? Four women arrested for picketing White House for woman's suffrage sentenced to six months in jail
IWW demos against war result in raids on their offices
Wilhelm Reich turns 20 (Lost Generation Nomad)
Dixieland Jazz Band (all-white musicians from New Orleans) opens in New
York and (March) first ever jazz recordings made by them.
April 17 - New Orleans Storyville brothels section shut by Secretary of Navy; increases trend of Negroes, including musicians, already heading north due to lynchings (3,600 lynchings in the south and parts of the midwest since the Civil War) and a southern economic depression; many wind up in Chicago & other
northern cities (including the "Big Apple", Fletcher Henderson's name for New YorK City). Sidney Bechet (20) joins a tour that goes thru Chicago and stays there.
Duchamp's exhibits urinal as art
World War I included the first use of gas, submarines, and trench warfare.
16 Eugene V. Debs (62) makes famous anti-war speech in Canton, Ohio,
protesting World War I which was raging in Europe. For this speech he is
arrested under the Sedition Act and convicted in federal court in Cleveland,
Ohio under the war-time espionage law.
Summer: Berlin Dada gives numerous performances trying to influence Germans to (not give in) [Greil Marcus] but ?Weimer Republic ?gradually takes over
Oct-Nov street fighting in Berlin: November revolution - councils of workers, soldiers, intellectuals take over governing
Llano del Rio community, Louisiana founded (lasts to 1938)
Edna St. Vincent Millay moves to Greenwich Village
Paul Robeson turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad
1918 - Picabia in Zurich meets the Dadaists
-- The optimism of 1890-1913 has disappeared in the horrors of World War I.
Support for progressive movements has diminished, and what is left is reined in.
Literature reflects the pessimism.
Meanwhile, young artists in the relatively-untouched-by-the-war United States carry the energy for the new.
There the generation that grew up during the heady 1890s and 1900s reaches its 20s. --
League of Nations first meeting
Robert Goddard publication starts American rocketry
First nonstop flight across Atlantic
UK: Addison Act provides for building of millions of subsidized dwellings in suburbs, all dependent on London for employment
Over 70 Negroes lynched, including 10 soldiers just back from the war; 25 riots in the summer (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Washington D.C., and Chicago - 13 day
riot - first big Northern race-riot (36 killed, 536 injured) [Negros, back from WWI, but still not treated as equals]
Chinese students beaten by police while demonstrating in Tiananmen Square, Beijing for western science and democracy
|January 5 - Berlin
- Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg, lead revolt
to renew November revolution - lasts 6 days; Jan 15 - Rosa Luxembourg assassinated
January 16 - Prohibition (18th amendment) ratified by 36th state (starts 1920)
February - Seattle general strike
Eugene V. Debs (63) and Scott Nearing (36) tried under the Espionage and Sedition Laws for their anti-war positions; April 13 - Debs sent to penitentiary for 10 years (commuted 1921)
July 27 - Chicago beach riot involving white & black youths: one of bloodiest in US history: 15 white, 23 Negroes dead; 537 injured [Jazz history book said "summer of Negro riots"]
Sept - Allegeny County (Pennsylvania) steel mill strike
Starting in Chicago, nationwide steel strike -
350,000 workers in 24 separate craft unions strike (AFL) - ended in defeat. (Jan 1920)
1919 - over 4 million workers--one fifth of the US workforce--participated in strikes, including 365,000 steelworkers and 400,000 miners.
Communists seizing power in Hungary and staging a revolt in Germany, and workers in Italy seizing factories.
Dec 21 Palmer Raids: 249 aliens rounded up and deported to U.S.S.R., including Emma Goldman (50) and Alexander Berkman (49); Emma Goldman for opposing the US involvement in World War I
New York dock workers strike
Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association has two million members
Holy City community founded Santa Cruz; lasted to 1950s
"Afer the end of WW I, many of the original Greenwich Village bohemians moved on." Huh? See Algonquin Roundtable!
Jazz arrives in Europe:
Sidney Bechet (22) makes first tour
Roundtable, New York: After
World War I, Vanity Fair writers and Algonquin regulars Dorothy Parker,
Robert Benchley and Robert E. Sherwood began lunching at the Algonquin.
In 1919 they gathered in the Rose Room with some literary friends to welcome
back ascerbic critic Alexander Woollcott from his service as a war correspondent.
The lunch was intended as a put-down of Woollcotts pretensions, but
it proved so enjoyable that someone suggested it become a daily event. George
S. Kaufman, Heywood Broun and Edna Ferber were also in this august assembly,
which strongly influenced writers like F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway.
Met through the 1920s
- Alexander Woollcott, Robert Benchley, George S. Kaufman, Edna Ferber,
Franklin Pierce Adams, Heywood Broun, Harold Ross, Neysa McMein, Helen Hayes,
Vernon and Irene Castle, and Harpo Marx.
revived and spread North
wealth concentrates to the wealthiest
Bomb explosion in Wall St kills 35, wounds 130
1920?? 1921?? immigration to U.S. cut off
Unemployment insurance introduced in U.K. and Austria
Adolf Hitler announces his 25-point program in Munich
First? commercial radio broadcasts
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) founded
|Jan - 4000 aliens
arrested & deported;
spring -two friends of man among those arrested in January arrested for carrying guns in self defense: Sacco & Vanzetti imprisoned for 7 years
The Great Red Scare
Aug 26 - 19th amendment, giving women the vote, ratified
1920-25 Half of US literature written in Greenwich Village i.e. Eugene O' Neill
1920s - Gertrude Stein's Saturday night gatherings in Paris: F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Ford Madox Ford, Marcel Proust, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Edward Steichen, Constantin Brancusi, Jacques Lipchitz, Isadora Duncan, Piet Mondrian, Diego Rivera + live in Montparnasse (cheap and no Prohibition); meanwhile, Surrealists met in Montmartre at Café Cyrano (Gertrude Stein dubs this the "Lost Generation") (+ Ernest Hemingway (b 1899) who she met when he was 23 in 1922)
First (Freudian) psychiatric clinic opened (Berlin); International Journal of Psycho-Analysis started.
Sierra Club opposes a plan to build dams in Yellowstone National Park.
|January - Amadeo
Modigliani (35) dies of tuberculosis in Paris; at funeral: Derain, Brancusi,
Lipchitz, Leger, Soutine, Picasso
January : Picabia & Tristan Tzara to Paris (from Zurich)
Big Year of Dada, & breakup (ended 1922)
First International Dada Festival, Berlin, including Duchamp's Mona Lisa with beard & goatee; Max Ernst + ["Visitors to exhibit of Dadaist Art in Cologne are allowed to smash paintings"]
Duchamp returns to NY
First blues recorded (by Mamie Smith)
Sinclair Lewis: Main Street (best seller 1920-1921)
Bertrand Russell (48): The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism
German reparation payments set; rapid fall of German mark, inflation starts; Hitler's storm troopers (SA) begin
terrorizing political opponents [re-check - this must be later xx]
First fast-food outlet (White Castle chain, Kansas City)
Oil discovered at Signal Hill, Long Beach, California - richest oil strike to date
|May - Race-riot,
Tulsa, Oklahoma (50 whites, 200 Negros killed)
Saccho and Vanzaetti found guilty of murder
KKK activities become violent throughout southern U.S.
Swiss physician M.O. Bircher-Benner recommends the intake of more uncooked foods in "The Fundaments of Our Nutrition"
Summerhill School founded (explain) xx
July - Harold Stearns, Malcolm Cowley, George Munsen, Matthew Josephson, Edmund Wilson leave Greenwich Village for Paris; meanwhile, Willa Cather, Theodore Dreiser, and Sherwood Anderson arrive
The Kid, and The Idle Class
Ulysses trial (US v The Little Review) - lost, but The Little Review continues publishing excerpts anyway.
D.H. Lawrence: Women in Love
Aldous Huxley (27): Chrome Yellow
Pablo Picasso: Three Musicians
Man Ray (American) to Paris and met the French Dadaists
G.I. generation (Hero)
1920s US: flappers, Isadora Duncan
U.S.: for the first time suburbs growing faster (twice as fast) than, and by almost as many people as, cities
& transit systems for first time report falling ridership and loss of profits
"boom" starts in US after depression
Mussolini's March on Rome & forms Fascist government
New KKK, assuming the name of the post-Civil War organization, gains political power in U.S.
In a San Francisco laboratory, Idaho native Phil Farnsworth starts work on what will become television
to six years prison for civil
Dr. Marie Stopes holds meetings in London advocating birth control
Krishnamurti to US
The Lost Generation: "Life in this country is joyless and colorless, universally standardized, tawdry, given over to the worship of wealth and machinery . . . an empty place, bereft of encouragement or challenge . . . industrial wealth has resulted in spiritual poverty . . . born into a race that has drained away all its spiritual resources in the struggle to survive and that continues to struggle in the midst of plenty because life no longer possesses any meaning."
|Joe `King' Oliver
calls Louis Armstrong (22) to join his band in Chicago
T.S. Eliot: The Wasteland
e.e. cummings: first book of poetry (The Enormous Room)
James Joyce: Ulysses [written 1914-21]; Sylvia Beach publishes it in Paris; banned in U.S. & U.K. ["U.S. Post Office burns 500 copies upon arrival in U.S."]
Hermann Hesse: Siddhartha
Rilke: Letter to a Young Poet
Charleston dance first seen in a show "Liza" in Harlem
Dome oil scandal
World's first car-based shopping centre started:
Country Club Plaza in Country Club District, Kansas City
U.S. traffic congestion in some cities so bad that there is talk of barring cars from downtown streets
200,000 attend tri-state conclave of KKK, Kokomo, Ind.; martial law established in Oklahoma for protection from KKK
Value of German mark drops against dollar;
Hitler attempts coup d'etat
Hollywoodland sign erected on Los Angeles hillside
clinic opens in NY
Cotton Club opens, NYC's Harlem (by white gangsters for white after-theater guests): 142nd St & Lenox Ave.
Greenwich Village: Provincetown Players revive as a more commercial theater - redo O'Neill's Emperor Jones with new actor Paul Robeson
Duchamp returns to Paris, stops doing art (-> chess)
July - Dada ends with a performance of Tristan Tzara's play "Le Coeur a(\) Gas in Paris when a battle erupts between the followers of Tzara & of Breton, and police are called in. [Associated with Dada: Kurt Schwitters, Francis Picabia, Philippe Soupault, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Andre Breton - besides the founders.]
Beiderbecke organizes jazz band in Chicago
(?including Tommy Dorsey)
(April) first recordings by a Negro jazz band:
Joseph "King" Oliver's band; also "Jelly Roll" Morton records
Louis Armstrong leading the start of The Jazz Age in Chicago
The number of jazz recordings picks up
March 26 - Sarah Bernhardt (78) dies
(Edna St. Vincent Millay poetry - Pulitzer Prize)
Martin Buber: I and Thou
Kahlil Gibran: The Prophet
|ca 1923 - Gurdjieff
center outside Paris [get more on him xxx]
Blues singer Bessie Smith sells two million copies of "Downhearted Blues," proving the marketability of "race records" (music recorded primarily for a Negro audiences)
bill limits immigrants, excludes all Japanese
J. Edgar Hoover appointed director FBI
Hitler sentenced to 5 years; released after 8 months
Gandhi fasts to protest Hindu/Moslem feuds
Insecticides used for first time
|Returned from Paris
to US (Greenwich Village?): Dos Passos, e. e. cummings, Malcolm Cowley,
Graham Munson, John Farrar +
Owens Valley ("The Switzerland of California") farmers resist draining of the Owens Lake by Los Angeles aqueduct (built 1905-1913 by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's Mulholland) by dynamiting the aqueduct at Jawbone Canyon, opening the Alabama gates and diverting the flow of water for four days, and raising prices. [story of underhanded acquisition of water rights told in 1974 movie Chinatown]
Le Corbusier: The City of Tomorrow
T.) Scopes trial, Tennessee (H.L. Mencken &
Clarence Darrow - vs. William Jennings Bryan)
US: First woman governor - Nellie Tayloe Ross, Wyoming
Hitler reorganizes Nazi Party (27,000 members), publishes Mein Kampf vol. 1
Benton MacKay: `The New Exploration' in Survey magazine predicts that America will have to become more European;
also develops the idea of the townless highway, or `motorway'
|August - A. Philip
Randolph heads new Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
The last herd of buffalo in existence, in the protection of Yellowstone National Park, has grown from 100 in 1895, to 500.
Monet painting his water lily pond at Giverny
|La Revue Négre,
with Josephine Baker (20), starts Paris jazz rage: "Jazz, Chicago
style, arrives in Europe"
Broadway show "Runnin Wild" introduces Charleston to whites ---> Charleston dance craze [at least at the Cotton Club, introduced by Eleida Webb; - 1927]
Charlie Chaplin: The Gold Rush
Gary Cooper first film
Franz Kafka: The Trial published (posth.) (d.1924)
F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby
T.S. Eliot: The Hollow Men
Golden Age of Radio
26 - Scotch inventor John Logie Baird transmits recognizable human features
Goddard fires first liquid fuel rocket
First vitamin (B) isolated in pure form
Kodak produces first 16mm movie film
Supreme Court establishes constitutionality of zoning
Fascist youth organizations in Italy & Germany founded (co-opting Wandervogel movement?)
|Jelly Roll Morton's
and Duke Ellington's first records appear
Black Bottom dance seen in Broadway show "Scandels of 1926"
Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises
Franz Kafka: The Castle, and Amerika, published (posth.)
A.A. Milne: Winnie the Pooh
Duchamp's "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even"
shown at the Brooklyn Museum in a "definitive stage of incompletion"
20 - Lindbergh flies "Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane, New York
"Black Friday" in Germany: economic system collapses
Socialists riot in Vienna/general strike following acquittal of Nazis for political murder
Building 85% of world's cars, US has 1 for every 5 Americans or 1 for approximately 2 families
Werner Heisenberg: The Uncertainty Principle
|August 22- Sacco
and Vanzetti electrocuted
15,000 - 40,000 Americans in Paris
dies in Bugatti in Nice
Josephine Baker is Parisian star
Slow fox trot is popular
The first talkie film (Al Jolson in "The Jazz Singer")
I.P. Pavlov: Conditioned Responses
Hermann Hesse: The Steppenwolf
Sinclair Lewis: Elmer Gantry
Upton Sinclair: Oil!
Marcel Proust: A la recherche du temps perdu (posth.)
Franz Kafka: Amerika (unfinished novel) (posth.)
Edward Hopper: "Manhattan Bridge" (Amer. modern)
|Aug 1 - The Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers both record "hillbilly music" at same studio in Bristol, Tennessee. Rodgers incorporates a lot of Negro blues music into his songs; Carter sings traditional ballads from the Virginia mountains.|
suburb planned with clustered housing in neighborhood
units unbroken by traffic streets: Radburn, New Jersey
Planner Edward Bassett coins term `freeway' (New York Times)
First color motion pictures exhibited by Eastman
First scheduled television broadcasts (NY) (? see 1939)
J.L. Baird demonstrates color television
First use of teleprinters & teletypewriters
Amelia Earhardt is first woman to fly across Atlantic
Stalin's collectivizations start?
Herbert Hoover elected president of US
Head of Los Angeles Department
of Water and Power, Mulholland's St. Francis Dam fails and sends 12.5
billion US gallons of water flooding into the Santa Clara Valley, north
of Los Angeles. A 10-story wall of water rolls down the Santa Clara riverbed
at 18 mph towards the sea at Ventura, burying the town of Santa Paula
under 20 feet of mud and debris; other parts of Ventura County are covered
up to 70 feet. 450 killed. Mulholland resigns.
"worldwide" dance craze
Gershwin: "An American in Paris" - NY
Mississippi John Hurt records "Frankie" &"Nobody's Dirty Business" in Memphis for Okeh Records. St. Louis guitarist / pianist Lonnie Johnson, Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith were also in town. Hurt goes to New York City for another session in December: twelve additional sides, including "Avalon Blues." But each time, Hurt goes back to playing for parties around Avalon, Mississippi.
First Mickey Mouse cartoon released by Walt Disney
Margaret Mead: Coming of Age in Samoa
G.B. Shaw: The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism & Capitalism
Aldous Huxley: Point Counterpoint
Georgia O'Keeffe: "Nightwave" (American abstract painting)
Dali to Paris & joins Surrealists (main work 1929-1934)
St. Valentine's Day Massacre:
six notorious Chicago gangsters
|spring - textile
strikes through Carolinas and Tennessee
Georgia O'Keeffe visits Mabel Dodge Luhan in Taos, begins painting in New Mexico
|End of 1920s- New
York's Harlem (Negro) ballrooms: Small's Paradise, the Renaissance, the
Savoy: Lindy Hop - start of r&r rhythms & fast tempo;
Cab Calloway is a hit at NYC's (Harlem) Savoy Ballroom;
Louis Armstrong (one of the most famous Americans alive): Ain't Misbehavin'
Talkies kill silent films
Tarzan (?comic strip?)
Ernest Hemingway: A Farewell to Arms
Eric Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front --> best seller
Robert Graves: Goodby to All That (important?)
Virginia Woolf: A Room of One's Own
Bertrand Russell: Marriage and Morals
Second Surrealist Manifesto
August 29 Diaghilev die (57)
|First Oscars awarded|
- - The US generation that grew up during the disappointments of World War I and then the headiness of the Jazz Age
reaches their 20s and is plunged into the world's worst depression. They go on to become extremely cautious adults.
In Europe, there is relief, except in Germany, which the Allies policies sends into economic chaos. - -
US: New housing construction drops 95%
[compare with office over-construction xx]
picture telegraphy service Britain-Germany
After rapid inflation in the German economy, on
September 14 - Adolf Hitler's National Socialist Party gets 107 seats in the German parliament
Paris: Miller, Nin + Durrell??
San Francisco: Black Cat Cafe
Gandhi proclaims campaign of civil disobedience, calling upon the Indian population to refuse to pay taxes, particularly the tax on salt. He leads a march to the sea, in which thousands of Indians walk from Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea, where they made salt by evaporating sea water.
Duke Ellington & then Cab Calloway hit at Cotton Club
John Wayne in The Big Trail
Hermann Hesse: Narcissus & Goldmund
Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt (Nobel Prize)
Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents
Dashiell Hammett: The Maltese Falcon
Henri Matisse: "The Dance" (Fr expressionism) (recheck: started much earlier)
Paris: Alberto Giacometti (Swiss) - first Surrealist object `Suspended Ball'
Bunuel & Dali: L'age d'Or (film)
Piet Mondrian (i.e.)
Skirt hemlines plunge to 8 inches from the floor (mid-calf)
of German Danatbank leads to closure of all German banks.
German millionaires support Nazi Party (800,000 members)
Al "Scarface" Capone, gangster, jailed for income tax evasion
First woman elected to U.S. Senate- Hattie Caraway (D-Arkansas)
Empire State Building completed, New York
|1931-1937 - trials of the Scottsboro Boys, Alabama - two white women stepped from a box car in Paint Rock, Alabama & accused nine black teenagers on the train of raping them.||Sidney
Bechet settles in Paris
Clark Gable in The Painted Desert
Chaplin: "City Lights"
Dali: "Persistence of Memory"
Edward Hopper: "Route 6, Eastham"
The Group Theater founded by Lee Strasbourg, Harold Clurman, and Cheryl Crawford (to 1940)
Mayan Sacred Calendar: Planetary Underworld: Heaven 10: Night 5: Destruction - 1932 - 1952
elections: Nazi Party majority in Reichstag
Hitler quote get this xx
Nov FDR ?elected, but Communist Party candidate gets more than a million votes
Reconstruction Finance Corporation established by Congress to lend to rebuild US economy: 1.5 billion by year's end [before FDR?]
Japan begins undercutting world market prices
self-help organizations in 37 states, with 300,000 members
Myles Horton (27) founds Highlander Folk School in Tennessee with a mission to educate and restore human dignity and confidence to the people of the Appalachians, bringing back pride in their culture, music, and heritage. (Based on the Folk Schools of Denmark, which he visited in 1931.) MLK, Rosa Parks, and many other civil rights leaders spent time at Highlander in the early 1950s.
Guy Carawan, musical director, introduced the song "We Shall Overcome" there.
May-June - Bonus March on Washington, troops drive out
Amelia Earhart first woman to fly solo across Atlantic ?? [see 1928]
Gandhi begins fasting for long periods.
September: while in jail, Gandhi undertakes a fast unto death to improve the British treatment of the Hindu Untouchables.
Woody Guthrie turns 20 - G. I. (Hero)
Temple's first film
Mae West (40) in her first movie, Night After Night, becomes an instant sensation when she is allowed to rewrite her lines, and, when a hat check girl exclaims, "Goodness, what lovely diamonds." West, she replies, "Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie."
Hermann Hesse: A Journey to the East
Black Elk Speaks: John Neihardt
Brave New World: Aldous Huxley
Louis-Ferdinand Celine: Voyage au bout de la nuit
Childbirth Without Fear: Grantly Dick-Read
Giacometti: The Palace at 4 A.M. created
Calder: mobiles exhibited
to The Later War Years 1933-1953