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Counterculture Timeline: The Early War Years 1914-1932
Date   Context   Counterculture Events   The Arts   The Period
-- The generation that grew up during the Gay Nineties and the Progressive Period dies in the trenches.
Those that don't die go into shock at the world's first mechanized and faceless war. In Europe, pessimism. --

June 28 - Archduke Ferdinand shot by Serbian Black Hand

July 28 - WORLD WAR I starts in Europe

Last carrier pigeon dies (in US zoo)

?second car suburb: Beverly Hills, California (check date)

First cross continental telephone call made. 
  April - Ludlow Massacre ends Colorado coal strike

May -
Emmeline Pankhurst, feminist suffragette, is prevented from bearding the king at Buckingham Palace

June - Bologna, Ancona and other Italian cities declare themselves independent

July 28 - 27 anti-war meetings in Berlin

Llano del Rio community, Antelope Valley, California (1917/18 move to near Leesville, Louisiana 20,000 acres, called Newllano, lasted to 1938)

Pisgah Grande community, Santa Susana mountains of Southern California (Pentecosta Christian to 1921; 1939- moved to San Bernardino mountains, then Pikeville, Tenn. to 1950s?)

South African government makes important concessions to Gandhi's demands, including recognition of Indian marriages and abolition of the poll tax for them. His work in South Africa complete, Gandhi returns to India.

1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues

Aldous Huxley turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad

  Irving Berlin ?first pop?

Giorgio De Chirico: "Mystery and Melancholy of a Street"

Charlie Chaplin (25) first films & becomes a star with the introduction of his tramp character.

Fellowship of Reconciliation founded at the outbreak of the First World War by two Christians, Henry Hodgkin (an English Quaker) and Friedrich Siegmund-Schultze (a German Lutheran), who were about to be parted by the oncoming war. On the platform of the railway station at Cologne, they pledged to each other that, "We are one in Christ and can never be at war." To take that pledge forward, Hodgkin organised a conference in Cambridge at which over a hundred Christians of all denominations agreed to found the FoR.
  1903-1920 Lost Generation (Nomad)
born 1883-1900
continues to turn 20

Dorothy Parker

1915   WORLD WAR I
Tetanus epidemics in the trenches (& venereal disease)

First transcontinental phone call

Patrick Geddes: Cities in Evolution - predicts megalopolis

400% inflation in Russia

  Negro migration from the south (some 90% still there) begins, as the war cuts off flow of immigration to the north and work is available in munitions and other factories

Joe Hill executed in Utah

Margaret Sanger jailed for writing "Family Limitation," first book on birth control

1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues

Robert Graves turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad

Francis Picabia & Duchamp's first trip to US (NY); meets Alfred Stieglitz & Picabia & Man Ray: readymades

Charlie Chaplin (26): The Tramp

Classic New Orleans jazz heyday

Panama-Pacific Fair international exposition in San Francisco marks opening of Panama Canal, begins craze for Hawaiian music

1916   WORLD WAR I
spring: Verdun

Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes first woman member of US Congress

Army ROTC created by the National Defense Act of 1916; commissioned its first class of lieutenants in 1920
  summer San Francisco Preparedness Parade bomb kills 9 people; Tom Mooney & Warren Billings arrested & spend 20 years in prison

Margaret Sanger joins in opening first birth control clinic

Rabindranath Tagore (65) (poet, writer) visits US

1912 -17 Greenwich Village continues i.e. John Reed, Louise Bryant

Also in Greenwich Village: Dorothy Day (1897-1980) "in her 20s, so from 1917 on xxxx

August - Dancer Mata Hari presents herself to Captain Ladoux of French intelligence and announces her intention to change the course of World War I by espionage.

  February 5 - Dada born as conscientious objectors meet in Zurich: Tristan Tzara (20) (Romanian poet); Marcel Janco (21) (Romanian poet and painter); Hugo Ball (30) (German poet & philosopher); Hans (Jean) Arp (30) (Alsatian, later a sculptor) - first "Cabaret Voltaire" at Hollandische Malerei bar.
On June 23 Cabaret Voltaire shut down by public demand.

James Joyce (34): Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

Jazz sweeps the U.S.


April 6 - US enters WORLD WAR I










November 7 - Russian Bolshevik/Communist "October" Revolution

  Socialist gains in elections.
Summer: Socialist antiwar meetings draw 5000, 10,000, 20,000

June - Espionage Act passed (The Masses and other periodicals containing antiwar articles banned from the mails)

July - First open urban riot: East St Louis

July 1 - Boston: 8000 anti-war marchers

65,000 conscientious objectors; 900 imprisoned under Espionage Act; 450 arrested in Green Corn anti-draft Rebellion.

September - Department of Justice raids on 48 IWW meeting halls; 165 Wobblies arrested for conspiracy to hinder the draft.

when? Four women arrested for picketing White House for woman's suffrage sentenced to six months in jail

IWW demos against war result in raids on their offices

Wilhelm Reich turns 20 (Lost Generation Nomad)

  Original Dixieland Jazz Band (all-white musicians from New Orleans) opens in New York and (March) first ever jazz recordings made by them.

April 17 - New Orleans Storyville brothels section shut by Secretary of Navy; increases trend of Negroes, including musicians, already heading north due to lynchings (3,600 lynchings in the south and parts of the midwest since the Civil War) and a southern economic depression; many wind up in Chicago & other
northern cities (including the "Big Apple", Fletcher Henderson's name for New YorK City). Sidney Bechet (20) joins a tour that goes thru Chicago and stays there.

Duchamp's exhibits urinal as art


World War I included the first use of gas, submarines, and trench warfare.

November 11, 11 a.m.:
8.5 million dead, 21 million wounded, 7.5 million prisoners and missing
+ worldwide influenza epidemic, kills 20 million in a few months (more than World War I); 22 million by 1920

  June 16 — Eugene V. Debs (62) makes famous anti-war speech in Canton, Ohio, protesting World War I which was raging in Europe. For this speech he is arrested under the Sedition Act and convicted in federal court in Cleveland, Ohio under the war-time espionage law.

Summer: Berlin Dada gives numerous performances trying to influence Germans to (not give in) [Greil Marcus] but ?Weimer Republic ?gradually takes over

Oct-Nov street fighting in Berlin: November revolution - councils of workers, soldiers, intellectuals take over governing

Llano del Rio community, Louisiana founded (lasts to 1938)

Edna St. Vincent Millay moves to Greenwich Village

Paul Robeson turns 20 - Lost Generation Nomad


Early 1918 - Picabia in Zurich meets the Dadaists

Marcel Duchamp (31): Tu m'

Aldous Huxley (24): The Defeat of Youth

London: "The Freaks, an Idyll of Suburbia" (play)

Joe `King' Oliver and Freddie Keppard join Sidney Bechet (21) in Chicago, at the Royal Gardens & the Dreamland Cafe


-- The optimism of 1890-1913 has disappeared in the horrors of World War I.
Support for progressive movements has diminished, and what is left is reined in.
Literature reflects the pessimism.
Meanwhile, young artists in the relatively-untouched-by-the-war United States carry the energy for the new.
There the generation that grew up during the heady 1890s and 1900s reaches its 20s. --


  Recession(?) in U.S.

League of Nations first meeting

Robert Goddard publication starts American rocketry

First nonstop flight across Atlantic

UK: Addison Act provides for building of millions of subsidized dwellings in suburbs, all dependent on London for employment

Over 70 Negroes lynched, including 10 soldiers just back from the war; 25 riots in the summer (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Washington D.C., and Chicago - 13 day
riot - first big Northern race-riot (36 killed, 536 injured) [Negros, back from WWI, but still not treated as equals]

Chinese students beaten by police while demonstrating in Tiananmen Square, Beijing for western science and democracy
  January 5 - Berlin - Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg, lead revolt to renew November revolution - lasts 6 days; Jan 15 - Rosa Luxembourg assassinated (49)

January 16 - Prohibition (18th amendment) ratified by 36th state (starts 1920)

February - Seattle general strike

Eugene V. Debs (63) and Scott Nearing (36) tried under the Espionage and Sedition Laws for their anti-war positions; April 13 - Debs sent to penitentiary for 10 years (commuted 1921)

July 27 - Chicago beach riot involving white & black youths: one of bloodiest in US history: 15 white, 23 Negroes dead; 537 injured [Jazz history book said "summer of Negro riots"]

Sept - Allegeny County (Pennsylvania) steel mill strike

Starting in Chicago, nationwide steel strike -
350,000 workers in 24 separate craft unions strike (AFL) - ended in defeat. (Jan 1920)

1919 - over 4 million workers--one fifth of the US workforce--participated in strikes, including 365,000 steelworkers and 400,000 miners.

Communists seizing power in Hungary and staging a revolt in Germany, and workers in Italy seizing factories.

Dec 21 Palmer Raids: 249 aliens rounded up and deported to U.S.S.R., including Emma Goldman (50) and Alexander Berkman (49); Emma Goldman for opposing the US involvement in World War I

New York dock workers strike

Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association has two million members

Holy City community founded Santa Cruz; lasted to 1950s

"Afer the end of WW I, many of the original Greenwich Village bohemians moved on." Huh? See Algonquin Roundtable!


Jazz arrives in Europe: Sidney Bechet (22) makes first tour

1918-20 Stravinsky writes 3 pieces based on Negro music

Hermann Hesse (42): Demian

Proust (48) starts publication of La Recherche du Temps Perdu (1913-1927 first part)

Picabia & Duchamp to Paris; spread Dadaism to Andre Breton, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Paul Eluard

Bauhaus school of design founded, Germany

November - Paris: American Sylvia Beach opened her bookstore Shakespeare and Company

Vladimir Nabokov, Humphrey Bogart, Ernest Hemingway, Alfred Hitchcock turn 20 - Lost Generation Nomads (last)

      Algonquin Roundtable, New York: After World War I, Vanity Fair writers and Algonquin regulars Dorothy Parker, Robert Benchley and Robert E. Sherwood began lunching at the Algonquin. In 1919 they gathered in the Rose Room with some literary friends to welcome back ascerbic critic Alexander Woollcott from his service as a war correspondent. The lunch was intended as a put-down of Woollcott’s pretensions, but it proved so enjoyable that someone suggested it become a daily event. George S. Kaufman, Heywood Broun and Edna Ferber were also in this august assembly, which strongly influenced writers like F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Met through the 1920s - Alexander Woollcott, Robert Benchley, George S. Kaufman, Edna Ferber, Franklin Pierce Adams, Heywood Broun, Harold Ross, Neysa McMein, Helen Hayes, Vernon and Irene Castle, and Harpo Marx.

1920   KKK revived and spread North

Unemployment drops;
wealth concentrates to the wealthiest

Bomb explosion in Wall St kills 35, wounds 130

1920?? 1921?? immigration to U.S. cut off

Unemployment insurance introduced in U.K. and Austria

Adolf Hitler announces his 25-point program in Munich

First? commercial radio broadcasts

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) founded

  Jan - 4000 aliens arrested & deported;

spring -two friends of man among those arrested in January arrested for carrying guns in self defense: Sacco & Vanzetti imprisoned for 7 years

The Great Red Scare

Aug 26 - 19th amendment, giving women the vote, ratified

1920-25 Half of US literature written in Greenwich Village i.e. Eugene O' Neill

1920s - Gertrude Stein's Saturday night gatherings in Paris: F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Ford Madox Ford, Marcel Proust, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Edward Steichen, Constantin Brancusi, Jacques Lipchitz, Isadora Duncan, Piet Mondrian, Diego Rivera + live in Montparnasse (cheap and no Prohibition); meanwhile, Surrealists met in Montmartre at Café Cyrano (Gertrude Stein dubs this the "Lost Generation") (+ Ernest Hemingway (b 1899) who she met when he was 23 in 1922)

First (Freudian) psychiatric clinic opened (Berlin); International Journal of Psycho-Analysis started.

Sierra Club opposes a plan to build dams in Yellowstone National Park.

  January - Amadeo Modigliani (35) dies of tuberculosis in Paris; at funeral: Derain, Brancusi, Lipchitz, Leger, Soutine, Picasso

January : Picabia & Tristan Tzara to Paris (from Zurich)
Big Year of Dada, & breakup (ended 1922)
First International Dada Festival, Berlin, including Duchamp's Mona Lisa with beard & goatee; Max Ernst + ["Visitors to exhibit of Dadaist Art in Cologne are allowed to smash paintings"]
Duchamp returns to NY

First blues recorded (by Mamie Smith)

Sinclair Lewis: Main Street (best seller 1920-1921)

Bertrand Russell (48): The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism

1921   Germany: Weimer Republic

German reparation payments set; rapid fall of German mark, inflation starts; Hitler's storm troopers (SA) begin
terrorizing political opponents [re-check - this must be later xx]

First fast-food outlet (White Castle chain, Kansas City)

Oil discovered at Signal Hill, Long Beach, California - richest oil strike to date
  May - Race-riot, Tulsa, Oklahoma (50 whites, 200 Negros killed)

Saccho and Vanzaetti found guilty of murder

KKK activities become violent throughout southern U.S.

Swiss physician M.O. Bircher-Benner recommends the intake of more uncooked foods in "The Fundaments of Our Nutrition"

Summerhill School founded (explain) xx

July - Harold Stearns, Malcolm Cowley, George Munsen, Matthew Josephson, Edmund Wilson leave Greenwich Village for Paris; meanwhile, Willa Cather, Theodore Dreiser, and Sherwood Anderson arrive

  Charlie Chaplin: The Kid, and The Idle Class

Ulysses trial (US v The Little Review) - lost, but The Little Review continues publishing excerpts anyway.

D.H. Lawrence: Women in Love

Aldous Huxley (27): Chrome Yellow

Pablo Picasso: Three Musicians

Man Ray (American) to Paris and met the French Dadaists
G.I. generation (Hero)
born 1901-1924
turns 20

1920s US: flappers, Isadora Duncan

U.S.: for the first time suburbs growing faster (twice as fast) than, and by almost as many people as, cities
& transit systems for first time report falling ridership and loss of profits
1922   Stockmarket "boom" starts in US after depression

Mussolini's March on Rome & forms Fascist government

New KKK, assuming the name of the post-Civil War organization, gains political power in U.S.

In a San Francisco laboratory, Idaho native Phil Farnsworth starts work on what will become television
  Gandhi sentenced to six years prison for civil disobedience

Dr. Marie Stopes holds meetings in London advocating birth control

Krishnamurti to US

The Lost Generation: "Life in this country is joyless and colorless, universally standardized, tawdry, given over to the worship of wealth and machinery . . . an empty place, bereft of encouragement or challenge . . . industrial wealth has resulted in spiritual poverty . . . born into a race that has drained away all its spiritual resources in the struggle to survive and that continues to struggle in the midst of plenty because life no longer possesses any meaning."
  Joe `King' Oliver calls Louis Armstrong (22) to join his band in Chicago

T.S. Eliot: The Wasteland

e.e. cummings: first book of poetry (The Enormous Room)

James Joyce: Ulysses [written 1914-21]; Sylvia Beach publishes it in Paris; banned in U.S. & U.K. ["U.S. Post Office burns 500 copies upon arrival in U.S."]

Hermann Hesse: Siddhartha

Rilke: Letter to a Young Poet

Charleston dance first seen in a show "Liza" in Harlem

1923   Teapot Dome oil scandal

World's first car-based shopping centre started:
Country Club Plaza in Country Club District, Kansas City

U.S. traffic congestion in some cities so bad that there is talk of barring cars from downtown streets

200,000 attend tri-state conclave of KKK, Kokomo, Ind.; martial law established in Oklahoma for protection from KKK

Value of German mark drops against dollar;
Hitler attempts coup d'etat

Hollywoodland sign erected on Los Angeles hillside

  First birth-control clinic opens in NY

Cotton Club opens, NYC's Harlem (by white gangsters for white after-theater guests): 142nd St & Lenox Ave.

Greenwich Village: Provincetown Players revive as a more commercial theater - redo O'Neill's Emperor Jones with new actor Paul Robeson

Duchamp returns to Paris, stops doing art (-> chess)

July - Dada ends with a performance of Tristan Tzara's play "Le Coeur a(\) Gas in Paris when a battle erupts between the followers of Tzara & of Breton, and police are called in. [Associated with Dada: Kurt Schwitters, Francis Picabia, Philippe Soupault, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Andre Breton - besides the founders.]
  "Bix" Beiderbecke organizes jazz band in Chicago
(?including Tommy Dorsey)
(April) first recordings by a Negro jazz band:
Joseph "King" Oliver's band; also "Jelly Roll" Morton records
Louis Armstrong leading the start of The Jazz Age in Chicago

The number of jazz recordings picks up

March 26 - Sarah Bernhardt (78) dies

(Edna St. Vincent Millay poetry - Pulitzer Prize)

Martin Buber: I and Thou

Kahlil Gibran: The Prophet

  ca 1923 - Gurdjieff center outside Paris [get more on him xxx]

Blues singer Bessie Smith sells two million copies of "Downhearted Blues," proving the marketability of "race records" (music recorded primarily for a Negro audiences)
1924   U.S. bill limits immigrants, excludes all Japanese

J. Edgar Hoover appointed director FBI

Hitler sentenced to 5 years; released after 8 months

Gandhi fasts to protest Hindu/Moslem feuds

Insecticides used for first time

  Returned from Paris to US (Greenwich Village?): Dos Passos, e. e. cummings, Malcolm Cowley, Graham Munson, John Farrar +

Owens Valley ("The Switzerland of California") farmers resist draining of the Owens Lake by Los Angeles aqueduct (built 1905-1913 by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's Mulholland) by dynamiting the aqueduct at Jawbone Canyon, opening the Alabama gates and diverting the flow of water for four days, and raising prices. [story of underhanded acquisition of water rights told in 1974 movie Chinatown]

Le Corbusier: The City of Tomorrow

Surrealism: First Manifesto -
Andre Breton, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Paul Delvaux, Joan Miro, Rene Magritte ("most of the Dadaists became Surrealists")

Black Bottom dance first seen in show: `Dinah' in Harlem

Mid-xxx dresses/skirts

1925   (John T.) Scopes trial, Tennessee (H.L. Mencken &
Clarence Darrow - vs. William Jennings Bryan)

US: First woman governor - Nellie Tayloe Ross, Wyoming

Hitler reorganizes Nazi Party (27,000 members), publishes Mein Kampf vol. 1

Benton MacKay: `The New Exploration' in Survey magazine predicts that America will have to become more European;
also develops the idea of the townless highway, or `motorway'

  August - A. Philip Randolph heads new Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

The last herd of buffalo in existence, in the protection of Yellowstone National Park, has grown from 100 in 1895, to 500.

Monet painting his water lily pond at Giverny
  La Revue Négre, with Josephine Baker (20), starts Paris jazz rage: "Jazz, Chicago style, arrives in Europe"

Broadway show "Runnin Wild" introduces Charleston to whites ---> Charleston dance craze [at least at the Cotton Club, introduced by Eleida Webb; - 1927]

Charlie Chaplin: The Gold Rush

Gary Cooper first film


Franz Kafka: The Trial published (posth.) (d.1924)

F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby

T.S. Eliot: The Hollow Men


1925- 1950
Golden Age of Radio
1926   Jan 26 - Scotch inventor John Logie Baird transmits recognizable human features by television

Goddard fires first liquid fuel rocket

First vitamin (B) isolated in pure form

Kodak produces first 16mm movie film

Supreme Court establishes constitutionality of zoning

Fascist youth organizations in Italy & Germany founded (co-opting Wandervogel movement?)

      Jelly Roll Morton's and Duke Ellington's first records appear

Black Bottom dance seen in Broadway show "Scandels of 1926"

Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises

Franz Kafka: The Castle, and Amerika, published (posth.)

A.A. Milne: Winnie the Pooh

Duchamp's "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even"
shown at the Brooklyn Museum in a "definitive stage of incompletion"

1927   May 20 - Lindbergh flies "Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane, New York to Paris

"Black Friday" in Germany: economic system collapses

Socialists riot in Vienna/general strike following acquittal of Nazis for political murder

Building 85% of world's cars, US has 1 for every 5 Americans or 1 for approximately 2 families

Werner Heisenberg: The Uncertainty Principle
  August 22- Sacco and Vanzetti electrocuted

15,000 - 40,000 Americans in Paris
  Isadora Duncan dies in Bugatti in Nice

Josephine Baker is Parisian star

Slow fox trot is popular

The first talkie film (Al Jolson in "The Jazz Singer")

I.P. Pavlov: Conditioned Responses

Hermann Hesse: The Steppenwolf

Sinclair Lewis: Elmer Gantry

Upton Sinclair: Oil!

Marcel Proust: A la recherche du temps perdu (posth.)

Franz Kafka: Amerika (unfinished novel) (posth.)

Edward Hopper: "Manhattan Bridge" (Amer. modern)

  Aug 1 - The Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers both record "hillbilly music" at same studio in Bristol, Tennessee. Rodgers incorporates a lot of Negro blues music into his songs; Carter sings traditional ballads from the Virginia mountains.
1928   First suburb planned with clustered housing in neighborhood
units unbroken by traffic streets: Radburn, New Jersey

Planner Edward Bassett coins term `freeway' (New York Times)

First color motion pictures exhibited by Eastman

First scheduled television broadcasts (NY) (? see 1939)

J.L. Baird demonstrates color television

First use of teleprinters & teletypewriters

Amelia Earhardt is first woman to fly across Atlantic

Stalin's collectivizations start?

Herbert Hoover elected president of US


Head of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Mulholland's St. Francis Dam fails and sends 12.5 billion US gallons of water flooding into the Santa Clara Valley, north of Los Angeles. A 10-story wall of water rolls down the Santa Clara riverbed at 18 mph towards the sea at Ventura, burying the town of Santa Paula under 20 feet of mud and debris; other parts of Ventura County are covered up to 70 feet. 450 killed. Mulholland resigns.

D. H. Lawrence (43) writes Lady Chatterley's Lover (published privately in Florence in 1928 (banned in U.S.), in a bowdlerized version in London in 1932 and finally unexpurgated by Grove Press in the US in 1959).

  Charleston is "worldwide" dance craze

Gershwin: "An American in Paris" - NY

Mississippi John Hurt records "Frankie" &"Nobody's Dirty Business" in Memphis for Okeh Records. St. Louis guitarist / pianist Lonnie Johnson, Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith were also in town. Hurt goes to New York City for another session in December: twelve additional sides, including "Avalon Blues." But each time, Hurt goes back to playing for parties around Avalon, Mississippi.

First Mickey Mouse cartoon released by Walt Disney

Margaret Mead: Coming of Age in Samoa

G.B. Shaw: The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism & Capitalism

Aldous Huxley: Point Counterpoint

Georgia O'Keeffe: "Nightwave" (American abstract painting)

Dali to Paris & joins Surrealists (main work 1929-1934)


St. Valentine's Day Massacre: six notorious Chicago gangsters
machine-gunned to death by rival gang

Oct 22/24/28 U.S. Stock Exchange collapses
starting Great Depression, world economic crisis
Oct 29 N.Y. Stock market crash; U.S. securities lose $26 billion in value

First Howard Johnsons (Massachusetts)

Great Depression and
World War II

  spring - textile strikes through Carolinas and Tennessee

Georgia O'Keeffe visits Mabel Dodge Luhan in Taos, begins painting in New Mexico
  End of 1920s- New York's Harlem (Negro) ballrooms: Small's Paradise, the Renaissance, the Savoy: Lindy Hop - start of r&r rhythms & fast tempo;
Cab Calloway is a hit at NYC's (Harlem) Savoy Ballroom;
Louis Armstrong (one of the most famous Americans alive): Ain't Misbehavin'

Talkies kill silent films

Tarzan (?comic strip?)

Ernest Hemingway: A Farewell to Arms

Eric Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front --> best seller

Robert Graves: Goodby to All That (important?)

Virginia Woolf: A Room of One's Own

Bertrand Russell: Marriage and Morals

Second Surrealist Manifesto

August 29 Diaghilev die (57)

  First Oscars awarded

- - The US generation that grew up during the disappointments of World War I and then the headiness of the Jazz Age
reaches their 20s and is plunged into the world's worst depression. They go on to become extremely cautious adults.
In Europe, there is relief, except in Germany, which the Allies policies sends into economic chaos. - -

1930   1928-33 US: New housing construction drops 95%
[compare with office over-construction xx]

Photoflash bulb;
picture telegraphy service Britain-Germany

Marx Brothers

After rapid inflation in the German economy, on
September 14 - Adolf Hitler's National Socialist Party gets 107 seats in the German parliament

Stalin purges
  1930s Paris: Miller, Nin + Durrell??

San Francisco: Black Cat Cafe

Gandhi proclaims campaign of civil disobedience, calling upon the Indian population to refuse to pay taxes, particularly the tax on salt. He leads a march to the sea, in which thousands of Indians walk from Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea, where they made salt by evaporating sea water.
  when? Duke Ellington & then Cab Calloway hit at Cotton Club

John Wayne in The Big Trail

Hermann Hesse: Narcissus & Goldmund

Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt (Nobel Prize)

Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents

Dashiell Hammett: The Maltese Falcon

Henri Matisse: "The Dance" (Fr expressionism) (recheck: started much earlier)

Paris: Alberto Giacometti (Swiss) - first Surrealist object `Suspended Ball'

Bunuel & Dali: L'age d'Or (film)

Piet Mondrian (i.e.)

Skirt hemlines plunge to 8 inches from the floor (mid-calf)

1931   Bankruptcy of German Danatbank leads to closure of all German banks.
German millionaires support Nazi Party (800,000 members)

Al "Scarface" Capone, gangster, jailed for income tax evasion

First woman elected to U.S. Senate- Hattie Caraway (D-Arkansas)

Empire State Building completed, New York

  1931-1937 - trials of the Scottsboro Boys, Alabama - two white women stepped from a box car in Paint Rock, Alabama & accused nine black teenagers on the train of raping them.   Sidney Bechet settles in Paris

Clark Gable in The Painted Desert

Chaplin: "City Lights"

Dali: "Persistence of Memory"

Edward Hopper: "Route 6, Eastham"

The Group Theater founded by Lee Strasbourg, Harold Clurman, and Cheryl Crawford (to 1940)


Mayan Sacred Calendar: Planetary Underworld: Heaven 10: Night 5: Destruction - 1932 - 1952

1932   German elections: Nazi Party majority in Reichstag
Hitler quote get this

Nov FDR ?elected, but Communist Party candidate gets more than a million votes

Reconstruction Finance Corporation established by Congress to lend to rebuild US economy: 1.5 billion by year's end [before FDR?]

Japan begins undercutting world market prices

  330 self-help organizations in 37 states, with 300,000 members

Myles Horton (27) founds Highlander Folk School in Tennessee with a mission to educate and restore human dignity and confidence to the people of the Appalachians, bringing back pride in their culture, music, and heritage. (Based on the Folk Schools of Denmark, which he visited in 1931.) MLK, Rosa Parks, and many other civil rights leaders spent time at Highlander in the early 1950s.
Guy Carawan, musical director, introduced the song "We Shall Overcome" there.

May-June - Bonus March on Washington, troops drive out

Amelia Earhart first woman to fly solo across Atlantic ?? [see 1928]

Gandhi begins fasting for long periods.
September: while in jail, Gandhi undertakes a “fast unto death” to improve the British treatment of the Hindu Untouchables.

Woody Guthrie turns 20 - G. I. (Hero)

  Shirley Temple's first film

Mae West (40) in her first movie, Night After Night, becomes an instant sensation when she is allowed to rewrite her lines, and, when a hat check girl exclaims, "Goodness, what lovely diamonds." West, she replies, "Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie."

Hermann Hesse: A Journey to the East

Black Elk Speaks: John Neihardt

Brave New World: Aldous Huxley

Louis-Ferdinand Celine: Voyage au bout de la nuit

Childbirth Without Fear: Grantly Dick-Read

Giacometti: The Palace at 4 A.M. created

Calder: mobiles exhibited

On to The Later War Years 1933-1953